Strategy for Girl Child Education

Strategy for Girl Child Education  
for  forfor for
The State of Andhra Pradesh TTThe State of Andhra Pradesh  
Road No. 25, Jubilee Hills
Hyderabad- 500 033 Table of Contents
S.No. Particulars  Page No.
1  Chapter-I
Right to Education a Constitutional Obligation and An
International Commitment
2.  Major Policies and Schemes paving way for Girl Child
3.  Demographic Trends in Andhra Pradesh- Focus on Girl
Chapter –IV
4.  Reaching the Girl child- Access, Enrolment and
5.  Girl Child Labour- Forced Illiterates
6.  Quality
7.  Issues in Perspective
8.  Strategies for Girl Child Education
References  105 1
Chapter- I
 UEE – A Constitutional obligation
 Education for all- International conventions/ commitments/ declarations.
 Elementary Education- A Fundamental Right 2
Education is the basic requirement for human development and right to education is a
fundamental human right. This fact has been recognized by our Constitution, various
international conventions, and declarations. Every  person irrespective of their sex, caste,
creed religion should be provided with opportunities to avail education to attain complete
human development. Education is a concurrent subject and the Constitution of India
contains the following provisions concerning it.
1.1 Directive Principles of State Policy
The Directive principles of state policy contained in the Part-IV of the Constitution are the
directives for the State to follow in the manner of administration as well as in making laws.
They embody the aims and objectives of the State and act as guidelines in the day to day
functioning of the State but do not confer legally  enforceable right. In recent years the
importance of Directive principles has been raised  by the judiciary, frequently as they are
vital and are contained in the Fundamental Law of the land i.e., the Constitution, the magna
carta of our country. The Directive principles concerned with education are:
Art icle 45
The Article 45 of the Constitution states that “The State shall endeavour to provide, within a
period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory
education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
This Article lays down State’s goal of providing free and compulsory universal education to
all the children until the age of fourteen. This Article in essence promotes UEE which is
evident from the age group mentioned.
Art icle 46
Article 46 of the Constitution states that “The State shall promote with special care the
educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular,
of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social
injustice and all forms of exploitation”. This Article speaks about the educational interests of
the weaker sections of the society through affirmative action
1. Right to Education a Constitutional Obligation and  an
International Commitment 3
These Articles have provided the justification for various judicial pronouncements in favor of
right to education as a fundamental right. These have provided the platform for the UEE as
basic human right. The Courts have gone a long way in promoting the right to education and
making State responsible for the same which has led to the inclusion of right to education as
the fundamental right in the long run.
1.2 Right to Educat ion as a Fundamental Right
The question arose for the first time before the Supreme Court in Mohini Jain v. State of
. The main issue before the Bench was whether it would be permissible for
private but government recognized educational institutions to charge capitation fees for
admission of the students.  The Court while striking down the notification allowing such a
differential treatment observed that:
“The Constitution does not expressly guarantee the right to education as such as a fundamental right
but reading cumulatively Article 21 along with the Directive principles of state policy contained in
Articles 38, 39(a), 41 and 45 the Court opined that “it becomes clear that the framers of Constitution
made it obligatory for the State to provide education for its citizens”.
The Court argued that without making the right to education under Article 41 a reality, the
Fundamental rights would remain beyond the reach of a large majority which is illiterate; the
Fundamental rights including the freedom of speech  and expression and other rights
guaranteed under article 19 cannot be fully appreciated and fully enjoyed unless a citizen is
educated and is conscious of his individualistic dignity. Right to life is the compendious
expression for all those rights which are basic to the dignified enjoyment of life. The Court
then went on to hold that right to education being concomitant to the fundamental rights the
state is under a constitutional mandate to provide educational institutions at all levels for the
benefit of the citizens.
In this case the Court took an expansive view of State obligation to provide education to
everyone at all levels. This case can be considered as a prologue to inclusion of right to
education as a fundamental right in the constitution, but it placed an impossible financial
burden on the State by making right to education an absolute right. As per this case the
State is under obligation to provide education to all and have adequate number of institutions
of higher and professional education as there may be need for. This case though expanded
the ambit of right to life was not practical in its approach as it laid down a theoretical and
idealistic duty on the State.
 AIR 1992 SC 1858 4
The above issue came to be reconsidered in Unni Krishnan vs. State of Andhra Pradesh
wherein a more realistic view was propounded by the Supreme Court. This is a landmark
judgement as it lays forth a practical approach balancing the right to education as a
fundamental right on one side and the burden on the State on the other.
The Court had reiterated in this case that having regard to fundamental significance of
education to the life of an individual and the nation, the right to education is implicit in and
flows from the right to life guaranteed by Article  21. But the Court interestingly carved
parameters within which the right is operational. The Court held that this right has to be
determined in the  light of Directive of Principles of State policy contained in Articles 41, 45,
and 46. An important extract from the Supreme Court Judgement in the landmark this case
is as follows
1. The citizens of this country have a fundamental right to education. The said right flows from
Article 21. This right is, however, not an absolute right. Its content and parameters have to be
determined in the light of Articles 45 and 41. In other words, every child/citizen of this country
has a right to free education until he completes the age of fourteen years. Thereafter his right
to education is subject to the limit of economic capacity and development of the State.
2. The obligations created by Article 41, 45 and 46 of the Constitution can be discharged by the
State either by establishing institutions on its own or by aiding, recognising, and/or by granting
affiliation to private educational institutions. Where aid is not granted to private educational
institutions, and merely recognition or affiliation is  granted, it may not be insisted that the
private education institution shall only charge that fee as is charged for similar courses in
governmental institutions. The private educational institutions have to and are entitled to
charge a higher fee, not exceeding the ceiling fixed in that behalf.
Therefore while granting right to education the status of a fundamental right the Court
explicitly pronounced the limitations within which the right is operational. It clearly limited the
state obligation to provide educational facilities as follows:
 Every citizen has a right to free education until he or she completes the age of 14 years
 Beyond that stage the State obligation to provide education is subject to the limits of the
economic capacity and development of the State.
Thus Supreme Court has interpreted and expanded the ambit of right to life to include right
to education as in the words of the same Supreme Court Right to life does not mean mere
animal existence but living with dignity. Education is an important facet in everybody’s life
and Supreme Court has realized its role in shaping an human being from all angles to make
it a fundamental right. It is true that most of the citizens in India are illiterates and not aware
of their basic human survival rights, leave apart fundamental rights, educating them will
change the scenario and make them ascertain their rights. The Supreme Court has rightly
 1993 AIR SC 217 5
elevated the status of right to education to fundamental right to make the realization of
achievement of Universalisation of elementary education.
The above efforts of Supreme Court have been translated in to explicit inclusion of Right to
education as a fundamental right by the Parliament in the Constitution of India.
1.3 Right to Education (Article 21 A) 93
The founding fathers of the Constitution of India had not included Right to education in part –
III of the Constitution as the situation of the country after independence was not conducive to
grant such a right to its citizens. Making right to education a fundamental right meant a huge
responsibility on the state as it did not have the sufficient resources at that time. Considering
the economic status of the country at the time of its independence granting a fundamental
right to education also meant that the state had to battle a large chunk of litigation against it
filed for enforcing the fundamental right guaranteed under the Constitution.
But times have changed and India has progressed economically and is a sustainable
situation than what it was at the time of independence. The government cannot still get away
of its duty to provide education to its citizens because the quality of development of the
country depends on the quality of its human resources. Educated citizens really shape the
country’s future and it is one of the priorities of the State to ensure education to all its
citizens’. Moreover the preamble to the constitution of India claims India to be Socialist and
Secular republic, more so reason to take up the responsibility of creating avenues for
resulting in an educated India.
The Supreme Court of India considering all the above developments, had embarked on
making education a fundamental right. The parliament following the foot steps of Supreme
Court and considering all the above factors has provided a fundamental right to education to
its citizens within the parameters of the limitations set forth in the Unni Krishna case.
The Parliament has introduced Article 21 A which reads as follows:
“The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to
fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.”
This Article clearly spells out the responsibility  of the State to extent of providing free and
compulsory education to all the children from the age of six to fourteen years. It vests the
discretion with the state to decide the manner and means of achieving the same.  6
The key words in this article are
 Free and compulsory education;
 Age of six to fourteen;
 In manner as the state may determine;
“Free and compulsory education”
The article lays a duty on state to provide free and compulsory education. The word ‘free’ is
very subjective and whether it covers only fees payable or includes also other incentives like
uniforms, stationery, etc is not clear. The law should spell out in clear terns the ambit of the
provision of free education.
“Age of six to fourteen”
Considering that early childhood care and development is an integral part of the overall
education and well being of a child the age limit chosen is crucial as it determines the level
of education in normal circumstances till the completion of class ten. In sense the State has
taken up the responsibility of free and compulsory education in terms of levels of education
till class X. It is well known that in order to pursue any further academic/vocational education
a minimum level of 10th standard (SSC / SSLC) is expected in most institutions across the
country. Further, there is no formal certification  of schooling until 10th standard, in the
current situation. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has been ratified by India, which
obligates the country to provide education to all children up to the age of 18 years. In light of
the above facts, it is strongly recommended that the upper age limit of the fundamental right
be revised as follows: "…up to the age of 18 years  or completion of 10th standard,
whichever is earlier.
“In manner as the state may determine”
The manner in which State performs its duty under this new 21-A vests with the State. The
quality of education promised by the State as a part of Article 21 A should be on par with
education provided in private schools. The quality of education should not be compromised
and should match with present day challenges. The students availing the free state
sponsored education should be equally competent as private school students and should not
be deprived of any amenities by virtue of availing  state sponsored education. The State
should prepare a proper scheme and impart high standards of education.
Right to education has been incorporated as a fundamental right in the Constitution with a
limited scope. Thus above is the constitutional position of right to education in our country. 7
In addition to the constitutional mandate there exist various international conventions,
declarations laying down the importance of education and the role of state in guaranteeing
the same. The various international conventions, declarations mandating education are:
1.4 International Commitments
Universal declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, 1948)
UDHR of 1948 the basis for international human rights law recognizing the right of every
child to have a healthy childhood with special care and assistance has laid down in Article 26
“(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and
fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education
shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis
of merit.
(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the
strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding,
tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of
the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.”
UDHR has declared education as a basic human right and therefore all human beings have
a natural right to education.  The United Nations declaration had only moral binding on its
parties and therefore to have an enforceable character UDHR has been translated into two
Conventions ICCPR and ICSER.
While ICCPR deals with civil and political rights the latter deals with social economic and
cultural rights. Both these conventions take after  the UDHR and have mentioned in clear
terms the right to education and the role of the state in guarantying the same. Article 13 of
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights contains the right to
education as basic human right. It recognizes the role of education in the full development of
the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and that it should strengthen the respect
for human rights and fundamental freedoms. There is a mandatory duty on the State to have
formal education systems in place and to promote access to the same.
UN Declaration of the Rights of the Child (UNDRC1959)
The UNDRC entitles every child to” affection, love  and understanding, adequate nutrition
and medical care, free education, free opportunity  for play and recreation, a name and
nationality, special care if handicapped, be among  the first to obtain relief in times of
disaster, learn to be a useful member of society and to develop individual abilities, be 8
brought up in spirit of peace and universal brotherhood, enjoy their rights regardless of race,
colour, sex and national origin.”. The declaration is on the overall development of child into a
complete human being in which education form major role.
Convention on Child Rights, 1989(CCR)
The CCR incorporates the full range of human rights—civil, cultural, economic, political and
social rights. The convention sets out the rights of children in 54 articles and 2 protocols.
This convention gives out a broader definition of child as one who has not completed 18
years of age
, The core principles of this convention are:
 devotion to the best interests of the child;
 the right to life, survival and development; and
 respect for the views of the child
The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and
legal, civil and social services. The convention lays down an obligation on the parties to
provide for all kinds of infrastructure for the development of children including administrative,
legislative measures
The convention rests a duty on the state to provide for educational facilities, social security
and other benefits to the children. The CRC focuses on the healthy growing atmosphere for
the children. It stresses on the right to education of the children as the basic human right and
primary duty of the children. Articles 28 and 29 of the convention relate to child education
and the obligation of the states in fulfilling it.
The CRC deals with the child rights comprehensively and has laid a great importance on the
right to education.
Dakar Goals (2000)
At the World Education Forum in Dakar (Senegal), the Dakar Forum agreed on six goals
which were considered to be essential, attainable and affordable, given strong international
commitment and resolve. Those goals were: to ensure, by 2015, that all children of primary
school age would have more access to and complete free schooling of acceptable quality;
that gender disparities in schooling would be eliminated; levels of adult illiteracy would be
halved; early childhood care and education would be expanded; learning opportunities for
youth and adults would be greatly increased; and all aspects of education quality would be
 Article 1 of the Convention on child rights, 1989
 Ibid Article 3 9
improved. The forum adopted the 'World Declaration on Education for All' and a 'Framework
for Action’ which described in phased manner the commitments of the States towards the
achievement of the above goals which are:
 By end 2002, governments to prepare national action plans, with participation of civil
society, for achieving the EFA goals
 ‘Increased space’ for civil society in policy formulation, implementation and
 “No countries seriously committed to education for all will be thwarted in their
achievement of this goal by lack of resources”.
 A Global Initiative to be established immediately to mobilise the additional resources
needed to achieve EFA
 An authoritative annual monitoring report to assess progress
The Dakar forum considered education as a development issue apart from considering it as
a fundamental human right.
Millennium Development Goals
At the Millennium Summit in September 2000, 147 world leaders agreed to a global compact
known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These consisted of eight goals and
were backed by an action plan with 18 quantifiable  targets combating poverty, hunger,
disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women. The MDGS
consisted of the following
 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
 Achieve universal primary education
 Promote gender equality and empower women
 Reduce child mortality
 Improve maternal health
 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
 Ensure environmental sustainability
 Develop a global partnership for development
The MDG consisted of basic human rights-the rights of each person on the planet to health,
education, shelter, and security. These goals have  set target for the achievement of the
above basic rights which are fundamental to all human beings irrespective of their
MDG’s and Education
Achieving universal primary education is one of the important MDGs. The MDG’s have set a
universal target that by 2015 all children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to
complete a full course of primary schooling. All the States have been urged to take steps in
this direction to achieve the above target.  10
The MDG’s has also set the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women as
one of the important goals. In most of the countries there exists blatant gender inequality
leading to women deprived of most of their rights including their right to education.
Considering this MDG’s have set the following target for the achievement of goal of gender
equality in education:
 Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005,
and at all levels by 2015.
In most of the developing countries children are unable to avail education due to poverty,
which has been major or in fact the factor depriving children from their right to education.
MDG’s have set eradication of extreme poverty and hunger as the primary goal. Towards the
achievement of the said goal the targets set are:
 Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day
 Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
This will go a great way in improving the living standards of people across the globe thereby
improving their quality of life by making them avail basic necessities in life. The eradication
of poverty will lead to fulfilment of most of the other basic human rights including education,
as poverty is one of the key hurdles in the achievement of the same.
Most of the MDG’s are interconnected goals and cannot be held in isolation. They are basic
human rights which every human being is entitled to and achievement of each goal is
essential for the overall well being. The achievement of each goal will provide the basis for
the achievement of the other.
Education is essential for the development of any state and this is evident from the above.
Right to education has been considered as a human right which naturally accrues to any
person by virtue of being born as a human. It is therefore the fundamental duty of all states
to ensure this right to its people indiscriminately. In India women were deprived of basic
education owing to various social, economic, political factors. So while creating measures for
spreading education for all care has to be taken to evolve special procedure to solve the
problem of girl child illiteracy and steps to be taken to bring them to the main stream. In this
direction SAARC has declared the Year 1990 as the SAARC Year of the Girl Child and the
decade of 1991-2000 was designated as the SAARC Decade of the Girl Child to sensitize
the world governments towards girl child issues including education. All the efforts should
converge at ensuring education for both genders equally. 11
Major policies and schemes paving way for girl child education
 Education in the Concurrent List
 National Policy on Education, 1986 and Program of Action
 National policy on Women 2001
 Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007)
 A.P. Community Participation Act, 1998
 Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project (APPEP)
 Operation Blackboard (OBB)
 District Institutes of Educational Training (DIET)
 District Primary Education Programme(DPEP)
 National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (School Meal
 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)
 The National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary (NPEGEL)
 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) 12
2.1 Key policies of the State
The key policies formulated by Government of India for the development of school education
in the last two decades and the schemes launched by the state to implement these policies
are briefly discussed in this chapter.
2.1.1 Education in the Concurrent List - A Meaningful Partnership
The Constitutional Amendment of 1976, which includes Education in the Concurrent List,
was a far-reaching step whose implications-substantive, financial and administrative-require
a new sharing of responsibility between the Union Government and the States. While the
role and responsibility of the States in regard to education will remain essentially unchanged,
the Union Government would accept a larger responsibility to reinforce the national and
integrative character of education, to maintain quality and standards, to study and monitor
the educational requirements of the country as a whole in regard to manpower for
development, to cater to the needs of research and  advanced study, to look after the
international aspects of education, culture and Human Resource Development and, in
general, to promote excellence at all levels of the education throughout the country.
2.1.2 National Policy on Education, 1986 & Program of Action (PoA), 1992
The National Policy on Education (NPE) gave prominence to both enrolment and retention of
children. As the POA put it crisply “enrolment by itself is of little importance if children do not
continue beyond one year, many of them not seeing the school for more than a few days.”
The highlight of the NPE was that it sought to address the most difficult aspect of access,
viz., access to education of millions of girls and  working children who, because of socioeconomic compulsions, cannot participate in school  system. The National Policy on
Education (1986) provides a broad policy framework for total eradication of illiteracy and a
commitment to make primary education free and compulsory up to fifth standard, besides
ensuring higher government and non government expenditure on education that should
constitute 6 per cent of GDP. Several schemes were launched by the Central Government to
meet the needs of not only the educationally disadvantaged but also for the overall
strengthening of the social infrastructure for education.  
2. Major Policies and Schemes paving way for Girl Child
Education  13
NPE also stressed that the recruitment of at least  50 per cent of the teachers should be
women to create conducive atmosphere for girl children in schools. This program also had
laid down the concept of Minimum levels of learning according to which irrespective of caste,
creed, location or sex, all children must be given  access to education of a comparable
standard. This strategy for improving the quality of elementary education is an attempt to
combine quality with equity. It lays down learning outcomes in the form of competencies or
levels of learning for each stage of elementary education. The strategy also prescribes the
adoption of measures that will ensure achievement of these levels by children both in the
formal schools as well as NFE centers. The NPE also introduced the scheme Operation
Black Board in 1987 to provide minimum essential facilities to all primary schools in the
Elementary Education
NPE proposed to set up new primary schools according to the norms in unserved
.  These schools were supposed to be opened by the  State Governments
following the norms specified under Operation Blackboard. The norms of OBB specified that
there should be atleast two teachers in a primary school and one of them should be a
woman teacher and each primary school should have at least two pucca classrooms. NPE
also recommended the expansion of infrastructure at the upper primary level to increase
enrolment at this stage. The norm of providing an upper primary school within 3 km walking
distance has been relaxed to benefit the girl child.
Secondary Education
Access to secondary education was proposed to be widened with emphasis on enrolment of
girls, SCs and STs, particularly in science, commerce and vocational streams. Boards of
Secondary Education were also proposed to be reorganised and vested with autonomy so
that their ability to improve the quality of secondary education is enhanced
. A program of
computer literacy (CLASS) was implemented in secondary level institutions to ensure that
the children are equipped with necessary computer skills to be effective in the emerging
technological world.
Children with special talent or aptitude were provided opportunities to proceed at a faster
pace, by making good quality education available to them, irrespective of their capacity to
 “Report on Task Force on Education for Women’s Equality”;
A Task Force was constituted by GoI under the chairmanship of Dr. Amrik Singh to study the  Role and Status of Boards of
Secondary Education (1997)14
pay for it through the Pace-setting residential schools, Navodaya Vidyalayas
. Their broad
aim was to serve the objective of excellence coupled with equity and social justice (with
reservation for the rural areas, SCs and STs), to promote national integration by providing
opportunities to talented children from different parts of the country, to live and learn
together, to develop their full potential, and, most importantly, to become catalysts of a
nation-wide programme of school improvement.
Curriculum Framework
NPE also undertook the updation and raising the standard of the text book syllabi to
incorporate the contemporary trends.  The positive approach of the total literacy campaigns
of NPE resulted in raise in demand for primary education. The awareness generated among
the parents had led to better participation of the children in primary schools, which benefited
especially the disadvantaged groups- the girls of SC and ST by attending the schools. The
states were advised to take up curriculum revision to incorporate proper understanding of
the work ethos and of the values of a humane and composite culture.
The policy paper envisages reorganisation of the methods of recruiting teachers to ensure
merit, objectivity and conformity with spatial and  functional requirements. The pay and
service conditions of teachers were proposed to be  commensurate with their social and
professional responsibilities and with the need to attract talent to the profession. A system of
teachers’ evaluation ~ open, participative and data-based – was contemplated and
reasonable opportunities of promotion to higher grades were provided. Norms of
accountability were proposed to be laid down with incentives for good performance and
disincentives for non-performance. A larger role for teachers was visualised in the
formulation and implementation of educational programmes.
The NPE, 1986 calls for a substantial improvement in the conditions of work of teachers and
the quality of teacher education. The policy also emphasized Teachers accountability to the
Pupils, their parents, the community and to their own profession. POA, 1992 also envisaged
among other measures, “Laying down of norms for accountability of teachers” to achieve the
broad policy objectives of NPE.
Policy Parameters
The policy parameters and the strategies of the NPE to promote girls’ education were aimed:
Supra Note 5
See generally NPE,198615
⇒ To get the entire education system to play positive interventionist role in the
empowerment of women.
⇒ To encourage educational institutions to take up active programs to enhance women
status and further women development in all sectors.
⇒ To widen women access to vocational technical and professional education at all levels
breaking gender stereotypes; and
⇒ To create dynamic management structure that will be able to respond to the challenge
posed by the mandate.
The plan of action of NPE primarily dealt with the  inclusion of the institutions to develop
concrete actions plans. It also suggested the setting up of monitoring unit to ensure
integration of gender issues into policies, programs and actions.  The annual plan of the
institutions and departments were required to spell out clearly the steps taken by them to
enhance women and girls access to education. It also provided for research and women
studies to promote better understanding of women contribution to social process within
social, technological environmental change and their struggles. The program aimed to
investigate and remove structural cultural or attitudinal causes of gender discrimination. It
provided for gender sensitization programs for the school teachers.
The NPE and its plan of action have brought out the close relationship between the
education and the status of women in the society. It has rightly established the fact that the
first step towards the strengthening the position of women is to provide for proper
educational facilities to empower them. The NPE can be called as a beneficial program to
the extent that it has even recognized alternative forms of training to facilitate easy access to
The national policy on empowerment of women, 2001 is aimed at women’s advancement in
different spheres. This policy is the output of various international obligations along with
internal interventions. The policy states that Gender disparity manifests itself in various
forms, the most obvious being the trend of continuously declining female ratio in the
population in the last few decades. Social stereotyping and violence at the domestic and
societal levels are some of the other manifestations. Discrimination against girl children,
adolescent girls and women persists in parts of the country. Therefore this policy is aimed at
improving the status of women in the society by empowering them especially those
belonging to weaker sections including Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes/ Other 16
backward Classes and minorities, majority of whom are in the rural areas and in the informal,
unorganized sector, by providing them with educational and health benefits.
2.1.4 Tenth five year plan (2002-2007)
The tenth five year plan
 covering the period 2002-2007 has recognized that  the human
development is an integral part of economic growth and accordingly has been set targets to
achieve the same. It is clearly stated in the tenth five year plan that “The development
process must be viewed in terms of the efficiency with which it uses an economy’s
productive capacities, involving both physical and  human resources, to attain the desired
economic and social ends (and not just material attainment).”  Therefore it has laid a lot of
emphasis on human development wherein elementary education forms an integral part. The
targets set forth for the Tenth Five Year plan to monitor the growth of education are as
• All children in school by 2003; all children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007;
• Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 per cent by 2007;
• Increase in Literacy rates to 75 per cent within the Plan period;
It has been observed by the tenth five year plan that the growth rate of the economy, birth
rate, death rate, infant mortality rate (IMR) and literacy rate, are all  interconnected, and that
the literacy rate has been the major determinant of the rise or fall in the other indicators. The
tenth five year plan has conceded that the high literacy rate among women has paved way
for low mortality rate and low birth rate and increase in the rate of life expectancy. This has
been the fundamental point for the focus upon literacy and elementary education
programmes, not simply as a matter of social justice but more to foster economic growth,
social well-being and social stability.
Targets under the tenth five year plan
The tenth five year plan has laid down the following targets in elementary education under
the various heads:
9 plans17
Universal access
⇒ All children in the 6-14 age group should have access to primary schools, upper primary
schools or their alternatives within a walking distance of one km and three km
⇒ All children in the 3-6 age groups must have universal access to early childhood care
and education centres.
⇒ Need-based expansion of upper primary education facilities, particularly for the
disadvantaged sections. There should be one upper primary school for every two
primary schools.
⇒ All schools should have buildings, toilets, drinking water, electricity, playgrounds,
blackboards and other basic facilities. There must  be provision of one classroom for
every teacher at the elementary stage.
Universal Enrolment
⇒ Enrolment of all children in schools or alternative arrangements by 2003.
⇒ All children to complete five years of primary schooling by 2007.
Universal Retention
⇒ Universal retention in the primary stage by 2007.
⇒ Dropout rate to be reduced to less than 10 per cent for grades VI-VIII by 2007.
Universal Achievement
⇒ Improve the quality of education in all respects (content and process) to ensure
reasonable learning outcomes at the elementary level, especially in literacy, numeric and
in life skills.
⇒ Bridge all gender and social gaps in enrolment, retention and learning achievement in
the primary stage by 2007 and reduce the gap to 5 per cent in the upper primary stage
by 2007.
⇒ Special interventions and strategies to include girls, SC/ST children, working children,
children with special needs, urban deprived children, children from minority groups,
children below the poverty line, migratory children and children in the hardest-to-reach
2.1.5 Decentralisation - A .P. Community Participation Act, 1998
Decentralised planning and management of elementary education is a goal set by the
National Policy on Education, 1986. The Policy visualises direct community involvement in 18
the form of Village Education Committees (VECs) for management of elementary education.
The POA, 1992, emphasised micro planning as a process of designing a family-wise and
child-wise plan of action by which every child regularly attends school, continues his or her
education at the place suitable to him/her and completes at least eight years of schooling or
its equivalent at the NFE centre.
The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments provide for decentralisation of the activities
and facilitate transfer of power and participation  of the local self-government institutions or
the Panchayati Raj Institutions.
As a sequel to the constitutional amendments, the government of Andhra Pradesh enacted
the A.P. Community Participation Act in 1998 and formed committees for the improvement of
education at various levels–School Committees at the habitation level, Panchayat Education
Committees at the panchayat level, Mandal Education Committees at the mandal level,
Municipal Education Committees at the municipal level and District Committees at the district
level. The School Committees are empowered to involve in the micro planning exercise and
the development of habitation education plans. The School Committees have the power to
monitor the functioning of schools and also procure TLM, etc., in partnership with the
School Committees have created a congenial atmosphere for the people to play a more
dynamic and proactive role. They have been providing voice to women, Scheduled Castes
and Tribes, minorities, parents and educational functionaries to invoke greater participation.
They have also been delegated with responsibilities with regard to location of primary and
upper schools on the basis of micro planning and school mapping. In this regard,
decentralisation of school management to grassroots level bodies is an important policy
initiative. Financial assistance is also being provided to school committees to engage local
qualified persons as vidya volunteers to augment the strength of teachers.
2.2.1 Introduction
Since independence, expansion of primary formal and non-formal education has been the
focus point of the central and state governments. Great deal of efforts were put in to achieve
the goal of Universalisation of Elementary education and the need of the hour is sustaining
2.2 Schemes 19
these efforts and make them more fruitful. Decentralised planning and management
strategies have to be introduced towards improving primary education in the country.
Several central and state level initiatives have been in vogue from the early 1980s. While the
designs of these projects vary substantially, all of them address the objectives and strategies
of the National Policy on Education 1986. They pay  special attention to increasing girls'
enrolment, improving educational outcomes, strengthening community involvement,
improving teaching and learning materials and providing in-service teacher training. The
status of some of these initiatives is discussed below.
2.2.2 Major central interventions
There have been several innovative schemes in the sector of elementary education following
the National Policy on Education in 1986 such as Operation Blackboard, Teacher Education,
Non Formal Education, National Programme for Nutritional Support for Primary Education,
State Specific Education Projects in Andhra Pradesh and also in major states like Bihar,
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh
 and DPEP in 248 districts of 18 States.  
2.2.3 Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project
The Andhra Pradesh Primary Education Project (APPEP) was implemented in primary
schools of state, with financial assistance of ODA  of the United Kingdom in two phases
between 1984 and 1996. The APPEP adopted a two-pronged strategy of improving
classroom transaction by training teachers and giving a fillip to school construction activities.
The project has trained an estimated 80,000 teachers in 23 districts and more than 3,000
teachers’ centres have become operational for the professional growth of teachers. The
project was assisted by the ODA with an estimated outlay of Rs. 1,000 million in the 8th
2.2.4 Operation Blackboard
Operation Blackboard, a centrally sponsored scheme launched in 1987, aimed at improving
the school environment and enhancing retention and  learning achievement of children by
providing minimum essential facilities in all primary schools. This scheme aimed to improve
physical infrastructure of education whereby school space was expanded and more teachers
provided.  The scheme has brought about a remarkable quantitative and qualitative
improvement in primary education. In all, 42,310 primary schools have been covered.
Andhra Pradesh Primary education Program (APPEP),  Lokjumbish Project and Shiksha Karmi project, of Rajasthan, Basic
education Program of Uttar Pradesh. 20
Operation Black Board sought to provide a second teacher to all one-teacher primary
schools. The government of India sanctioned 20286 teacher posts. It is also proposed that at
least three teachers should work in every school, the number increasing, as early as
possible, to one teacher per class.
Since 1993-94, the scheme has been expanded to cover upper primary schools. More then
10000 upper primary schools have been granted central assistance of Rs. 40,000 each for
purchase of teaching- learning materials. Also, primary schools with enrolment exceeding
100 have been augmented with a third teacher.
A Special Orientation Programme for Primary Teachers (SOPT) to facilitate optimum
utilisation of materials supplied has also been launched to cover all primary school teachers
in the state.
2.2.5 Strengthening of Teacher Education: DIETs                                                      
The centrally sponsored scheme of District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETS )
was launched by Government of India in1988 to provide academic and resource support at
the grass-roots level for the success of the various strategies and programmes being
undertaken in the areas of elementary and adult education, with the following purposes:  
Elementary Education: Universalisation of Primary/ Elementary Education.
Adult Education: NLM targets in regard to functional literacy in the 15-35 age group.
 The three main functions of DIETs are:
 Training teachers of primary and upper primary schools (both at induction level and
continuing training)
 Resource support (extension /guidance, development of materials, aids, evaluation
tools, etc.) and
 Action research
DIETs in Andhra Pradesh
In Andhra Pradesh, 23 DIETs are functioning with two tribal sub- DIETs at Utnoor in
Adilabad district and Paderu in Visakapatnam catering to the in-service tribal teachers in the
nine tribal districts of the state. During 1999- 2000, the syllabus of DIETs was revised and a
two year Diploma in Education (D.Ed.) was implemented. The intake capacity in Telugu
medium is 80 in each year with Urdu medium available in nine DIETs located in West
Godavari, Guntur, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Mahabubnagar,  Ranga Reddy, Hyderabad,
Nizamabad and Warangal districts.   21
Secondary level Teacher Training
The secondary level teacher training is by and large through the private sector. Three
Colleges of Education (CTE) and four Institutes of  Advanced Studies (IASE) are in the
government sector, six IASEs are run by the universities and one College of Teacher
Education is under private aided management (Andhra Mahila Sabha), while the bulk of the
colleges are under the private sector. At present about 300 private unaided colleges of
Education are functioning in the state.
2.2.6 District Primary Education Programme
The DPEP was launched in 1994 aimed at revamping primary education system in India.
The programme aimed at operationalising the strategies for achieving UEE through district
specific planning and disaggregated target setting. This program takes a holistic view of
primary education with emphasis on decentralised management, community mobilisation
and district specific planning based on contextually and research based inputs.
The basic objectives of DPEP are:
 To provide all children with access to primary education either in the formal system or
through the non-formal education (NFE) programme.
 To reduce differences in enrolment, dropout rates and learning achievement among
gender and social groups to less than 5%.
 To reduce overall primary dropout rates for all students to less than 10%.
 To raise average achievement levels by at least 25% over measured base line levels
and ensuring achievements of basic literacy and numeric competencies and a
minimum of 40% achievement levels in other competencies by all primary school
The Government of India financed 85 % of the project cost as a grant to the DPEP State
Implementation Society while the rest is provided by the state government. The central
government's share is resourced by external funding. The DPEP was implemented in the
backward districts with female literacy below the national average. DPEP has been
implemented in the state in two phases, Phase I (1996-2003) in five districts and Phase II
(1998-2004) in 14 districts.
DPEP has been able to set up project management structures at district, state and national
levels, create the environment and capacity for micro planning, take up the challenge of
pedagogical innovation, create a responsive institutional base which includes both 22
government and non-government institutions, enhance community participation and
strengthen the process of catering to special focus groups such as tribals, scheduled castes,
women and other marginalised sections.
DPEP focussed on specific interventions like early  childhood education, out -of -school
children, with special emphasis on Girls education  and teacher training. The program
provided much need assistance in terms of enhancement of infrastructural facilities like
construction of classrooms etc.
2.2.7 National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education (NPNSPE) -
School Meal Programme
The Mid day meals program draws a parallel between the malnutrition of children and child
education. The Mid day meal program aims at bringing the children to school by assuring
them food one time everyday they attend the school  thereby ensuring their prolonged
attendance in schools. The programme launched in August 1995 envisaged provision of
nutritious and wholesome cooked meal of 100 gms of food grains per school day, free of
cost, to all children in classes I-V by 1997-98. As an interim arrangement raw food grains
were given to the children till institutional arrangements were made for cooked food.
The scheme was revised in 2004 and the revamped scheme mandated the State
Governments to provide a cooked mid day meal with minimum 300 calories and 8-12 grams
of protein content to all the children studying in classes I-V in Government and Government
aided schools and the EGS and AIE centres.
 This Scheme rests with the State
Governments and the UT administration the overall responsibility of:
i. providing necessary infrastructure
ii. making all logistic/administrative arrangements necessary  for regular serving of
wholesome, cooked mid day meal of satisfactory quality, and nutritive value in every
eligible school/EGS-AIE Centre, and
iii. providing financial and other inputs, over and above those to be provided by way of
Central assistance, to the extent necessary for the programme.
Status of Implementation in Andhra Pradesh
The Government of Andhra Pradesh started implementing the mid day meal program in
twenty two districts of the state from 2
 January 2003 and from February 1
 2003 in
11 The Central  Government defined Government aided School and EGS/AIE centre as:
“Government-aided School” means a school in receipt of regular annual recurring aid from the Central or State Government, or
a competent Local Body, and recognized/categorized by it as an “aided school”. 23
Hyderabad district. Andhra Pradesh is not limiting the scheme to only primary schools but
has extended it to upper primary schools too. The scheme is also extended to children
enrolled in ECE centres, RBCs, NRBCs, NCLP centres. The State is providing sambar with
rice every day and a boiled egg or a banana once a week to the children. The scheme is
implemented in a public – private partnership model in the urban district of Hyderabad and in
Vishakapatnam city. Naandi is providing cooked food in Hyderabad and Vishakapatnam
cities.  TTD is providing cooked food in Tirupathi  rural mandal.  In the rest of the state
cooked food is provided by self help groups / Mother’s committees / School Education
2.2.8 The Tenth Five Year Plan - Programs for Achieving the UEE
The tenth five year plan has planned the following programs for UEE. These programs are
more oriented to reduce the gender disparity and bring in the drop out children especially
girls back to the education system to achieve the goal of UEE. It can be rightfully asserted
that the achievement of UEE is impossible without the inclusion of schemes for the
promotion of girl child education which fact has been recognized by the tenth five year plan
and has formed the basis for the same.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan
Under the tenth five year plan the SSA has to provide access and motivation to those
outside the school system who are mostly girls, SCs/STs children, working children, urban
deprived children, disabled children and children in difficult circumstances, without
compromising on the quality of education.
Tenth Five Year Plan - Gender specific programs
The tenth five year plan
 has also recommended gender specific programs to reduce
gender disparity in education. To achieve the above, the plan has emphasized on the
existing women centric programs such as Mahila Samakhya, and two new schemes, the
Kasturba Gandhi Swantantra Vidyalaya (KGSV) and the National Programme for the
Education of Girls at the Elementary Level (NPEGEL). The KGSV and NPEGEL were
proposed to take the following features during the plan period:
⇒ focus on educationally backward areas in girls’ education;
⇒ focus on girls from the disadvantaged sections like those belonging to SC/ST, minorities,
Supra Note 924
⇒ tackling gender-specific issues that prevent girls  and women from having access to
⇒ providing women and adolescent girls with the necessary support structure, and an
⇒ informal learning environment to create opportunities for education;
⇒ creating circumstances for larger participation of  women and girls in formal and nonformal education programmes; and
⇒ helping girls to overcome socio-cultural and economic factors inhibiting their access to
elementary education.
The tenth five year plan has laid down strategies for improvement of quality as the
achievement of UEE will be hollow without ensuring quality education. In this regard the plan
has stressed on:
⇒ Improving the quality of textbooks
⇒ Improving the quality of infrastructural facilities like toilets for girls, equipment and
support services, playgrounds, classrooms. The main thrust of the tenth five year plan is
to ascertain that all primary level schools have pucca buildings with all supporting
infrastructural facilities.
The tenth five year plan has provisions for the improving the quality and performance of
teachers education also. It has an elaborate strategy addressing the drop- outs too. The plan
has identified that girls form the major chunk of the drop outs owing to various factors and
has entrusted the duty of bringing them back while  retaining the existing ones to various
departments involved.
The tenth five year plan has laid immense importance on the UEE in general and girl child
education in particular. The plan has clearly laid down strategies towards UEE. While there
are general provisions applicable to both boys and  girls towards UEE there are special
provisions for girl child treating them as a special category.
2.2.9 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is an effort to universalise elementary education by
community-ownership of the school system. It is a response to the demand for quality basic
education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an
opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children, through provision of communityowned quality education in a mission mode. 25
Objectives of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan  
⇒ All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ' Back-to-School'
camp by 2003;
⇒ All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
⇒ All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010  
⇒ Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
⇒ Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary
education level by 2010
⇒ Universal retention by 2010  
Main Strategies of SSA  
 Community ownership of school based interventions through effective
decentralisation and involvement of various institutions at all levels
 Priority to girls – especially those belonging to SC/ ST
 Focus on special groups – inclusion and participation of children from SC/ST,
Minority groups, urban deprived children and children  with special needs
 Emphasis on quality – education at this level should be made useful and relevant by
improving the curriculum, including child centered activities, effective and innovative
teaching aids and teacher training
 Community based monitoring with full transparency – the educational MIS will
correlate school level data with community based information from micro planning
and surveys  
SSA in Andhra Pradesh:
The state has made concerted efforts to improve access and enrolment. 366 new Primary
Schools were opened and 253 primary schools were upgraded to Upper Primary Schools
(UPS) under SSA during 2005-06
. As a drive towards increasing enrolment, a large
number of class rooms were constructed. Almost 97%  of habitations now have a school
within one kilometre of the habitation. In the age  group of 6 - 14 years, out of the total
population of 117.59 lakhs currently around 113.35  lakh children are enrolled in schools
(almost 96.4% of the total children in this age group). The state has achieved altogether
96.4% of enrolment.
An initiative called Badi Bata
has been started under SSA, to address the problem of drop
outs and out of school children. As part of the programme volunteers take up house to house
 Performance Budget 2006-07, Department of School Education, Government of  Andhra Pradesh
14 26
survey to identify the dropouts. The consolidated list is discussed by the Gram Sabha, rallies
and processions are also taken out as part of this  programme in habitations to create
awareness. People having child labour in their houses are identified and targeted activities
are also undertaken to sensitize them. Children freed from these places are sent to RBC or
mainstreamed directly depending on their levels of learning.
The State has launched a rigorous training programme for all primary, upper primary
teachers to make teaching-learning more effective and joyful, giving emphasis on classroom
transaction, evaluation process, importance of remedial teaching and value education.  
2.2.10. The ‘National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL)
NPEGEL has been formulated for education of under privileged/disadvantaged girls from
class I to VIII as a separate and distinct gender component plan of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
(SSA). This was started as an amendment to the scheme of SSA for providing additional
components for education of girls at elementary level.
This scheme lays down a community based approached i.e. it involves actors at all levels
following a participatory approach in its implementation. This scheme targets the out of
school girls, drop outs, over aged girls who have not completed elementary education,
working girls, girls from marginalised social groups, girls with low attendance and girls with
low levels of achievement
The primary objective of the NPEGEL is to reduce the gender gap in enrolment at
elementary level especially among the SC/STs. The objectives of this scheme include:
 To develop and promote facilities to provide access and to facilitate retention of girls
 To ensure greater participation of women and girls in the field of education
 To improve the quality of education through various interventions and to stress upon
the relevance and quality of girls’ education for their empowerment.
Components of Scheme
Model cluster Schools
 Model Cluster Schools for Girls were opened in all selected districts/blocks where the
scheme was operational. These were aimed at improving the achievement of girls, fostering 27
an interest in education among them, and raising the importance of girls’ education in the
community. Existing schools having density of SC/ST/OBC/Minority girls were identified as
model cluster schools.
Model cluster schools for girls have the provision  of an additional classroom, supply of
drinking water, electrification, and toilet for which one time grant upto a maximum of Rs.2.00
lakhs was provided. Construction of additional classrooms, residential facilities, girl’s toilets,
water supply, electrification and barrier free features are the components of this scheme.
The scheme provides a one time grant of Rs. 30,000  for teaching learning equipment,
library, sports, vocational training, etc.
 The schools will consist of facilities in terms of teaching learning equipment, books,
equipment, games, and facilities for learning through computers, film shows, reading
material, self defence, life skills, riding bicycles, and reading. This girl child friendly
infrastructure will be used by all the schools in that cluster, by rotation. The scheme also has
provision for hiring instructors for the day or on  contract for imparting vocational and other
NPEGEL in Andhra Pradesh
The State is implementing NPEGEL programme in selected educationally backward
mandals of all the districts to promote the difficult to reach and over-aged girl children. Under
this scheme 1,295 model cluster schools
 have been established. The activities also
included giving work books to 74,000 slow learning girls, organizing 290 motivational camps
covering 11,750 girls, mainstreaming nearly 8,000 girls from RBCs and giving vocational
skills, amongst other things. Further, construction of 969 additional classrooms was taken up
in the model cluster schools. Model cluster centres are also supplied with library books,
music equipment and uniform for girls. Two cycles were supplied to each model cluster
centre to train all girls in cycling.
2.2.11 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) is being implemented by the Government of India
by setting up upto 750 residential schools
 with boarding facilities at elementary level for
girls belonging predominantly to the SC, ST, BC and minorities in difficult areas.  The
scheme will be coordinated with the existing schemes of Department of Elementary
See generally Performance Budget 2006-07, Department of School Education, Government of  Andhra Pradesh
16 28
Education & Literacy viz. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), National Programme for Education
of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) and Mahila Samakhya (MS).  
The primary objective of the KGBV is to reduce the gender gap in enrolment at elementary
level especially at the upper primary level in the  rural areas and among disadvantaged
communities. The objective of this scheme is to ensure access and quality education to the
girls of disadvantaged groups of society by setting up residential schools with boarding
facilities at elementary level.
Between 500 to 750 residential schools will be opened in the country, in a phased manner
over the 10
 Plan period at an estimated cost of Rs. 19.05 lakh as recurring cost and Rs.
26.25 lakh as non-recurring cost, per school.  Initially, the proposed schools shall be opened
in rented or other available Government buildings after deciding the location.  The district
administration has to ensure that the residential schools are set up only in those backward
blocks that do not have residential schools for elementary education of girls under any other
scheme of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
Components of the scheme
i) Setting up of residential schools where there are a minimum of 50 girls predominantly
from the SC, ST and minority communities available  to study in the school at the
elementary level.  The number can be more than 50 depending on the number of
eligible girls.  
ii) To provide necessary infrastructure for these schools
iii) To prepare and procure  necessary teaching learning material and aids for the
iv) To put in place appropriate systems to provide necessary academic support and for
evaluation and monitoring
v) To motivate and prepare the girls and their families to send them to residential school
vi) At the primary level the emphasis will be on the slightly older girls who are out of
school and were unable to complete primary schools  (10+). However,
in difficult areas (migratory populations, scattered habitations that do not qualify for
primary/ upper primary schools) younger girls can also be targeted
vii) At the upper primary level, emphasis will be on girls, especially, adolescent girls who
are unable to go to regular schools 29
viii) In view of the targeted nature of the scheme, 75% girls from SC, ST, OBC or minority
communities would be accorded priority for enrolment in such residential schools and
only thereafter,  25% girls from families below poverty line.
ix) Established NGOs and other non-profit making bodies will be involved in the running
of the schools, wherever possible. These residential schools can also be adopted by
the corporate groups.  
 KGBV in Andhra Pradesh
94 KGBV schools
 have been started in the state in August, 2005. The responsibility of
running these KGBV residential schools is interested to the AP State Residential Educational
Institutions Society (APREIS). In all the 94 KGBV schools, Principals, teaching staff and
other staff are appointed and posted by APREI Society, AP, Hyderabad. 7,818 girls are
enrolled in the KGBV Schools. The construction of school buildings of KGBV is proposed to
be completed before the 10
 Plan period. The District Collectors have been assigned the
task of identifying suitable sites for construction of school buildings for KGBV schools. By
March, 2006, as against 94 sites to be made available, Collectors have allotted 44 sites in 14
Supra note 1530
Chapter III
Demographic trends in Andhra Pradesh- Focus on Girl Child
 Literacy 31
3.1 Population Trends
India accounts for 2.4 percent of the world surface area and have 16.7% of the world
population. According to 2001 census, it has 531 million males and 496 million females and
is the second populous country next to China in the world. Though, there is an increase in
absolute terms of 180.6 million population in the last decade, the net growth rate of the
country has declined for the first time after 1961 and has witnessed an average decline of
1.93 percent per annum. In 1991 – 2001, the decadal growth of population in the country is
21.34 percent
According to 2001 Census of India, Andhra Pradesh is the fifth populous state with 7.37% of
the Indian population living within its boundaries. In the last decade, demographically it has
recorded many significant changes. It has recorded a decline in the decadal growth rate for
the first time after six decades from 24.20% in 1981 - 91 to 13.86% in 1991 - 2001. As per
the National Family Health Survey –1 (NFHS-1, 1989-91) in Andhra Pradesh, the Total
Fertility Rate (TFR) (the average number of children born per woman) is 2.59 and as per
NFHS –2 (1996-98) it is 2.25 which is nearer to the desired TFR i.e., 2.1
.  Infant Mortality
Rate has declined from 86/1000 in 1981 to 66/1000 in 1999 (1999 SRS estimates) and 59 in
. There is an increase in literacy rates from 44.08 in 1991 to 61.11 in 2001.  The
general population trends in Andhra Pradesh over the last one decade (1991- 2001) is
shown in the following table.
Population Variations in Andhra Pradesh (1991- 2001 Census)
Census  Male Female Total  Sex ratio
1991  33724581 32783427 66508008  972
2001  38527413 37682594 76210007  978
% of
inc/dec  14.24 14.94 14.59  
Source: Table 1.1 Statistical Abstract Andhra Pradesh 2005
3.1.1 Rural - Urban Population
The total population of Andhra Pradesh is 762.10 lakhs of which 554.01 lakhs reside in rural
areas and 208.09 lakhs reside in urban areas. The urban population of Andhra Pradesh
18 Source -
 Source -
 Source: Statistical Abstract Andhra Pradesh 2005
3. Demographic trends in Andhra Pradesh- Focus on Girl Child32
works out to be 27.08 % and is almost on par with urbanization in India (27.78 %). It
happens to be the second least urbanized state in South India.
Rural - Urban Population - Andhra Pradesh (1991 – 2001 Census)
1991  2001
Category  Male Female Total Male Female Total
Rural  24591875 24029007 48620882 27937204 27463863 55401067
Urban  9132706 8754420 17887126 10590209 10218731 20808940
Total  33724581 32783427 66508008 38527413 37682594 76210007
Source: Statistical Abstract Andhra Pradesh 2005
The three most urbanized districts in Andhra Pradesh are Hyderabad (100%), Ranga Reddi
(53.27%) and Visakhapatanam (39.89 %) and the least urbanized districts are
Mahabubnagar (10.59%), Srikakulam (11.00%) and Nalgonda (13.26 %) in that order
The percentage of rural population in 2001 is 72.92% as compared to 73.11 in 1991. In
terms of percentage of rural population to total population, Mahabubnagar ranks first with a
rural population of 89.41% followed by Srikakulam (89%) and Nalgonda (86.74 %) districts.
Ranga Reddi district has the least rural population of 46.73% and the district of Hyderabad
does not have any villages. In absolute numbers, the largest rural population is in East
Godavari (37.49 lakhs) district followed by Guntur  (31.79 lakhs) and Mahabubnagar (31.42
lakhs) districts
3.1.2 SC & ST Population
As disadvantaged groups in our society, the scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes
(ST) population deserves specific mention. The percentage of SC & ST population in the
state is presented below.  In 2001, there is a slight increase in both SC& ST population as
compared to the 1991 census. Among the South Indian states, Andhra Pradesh ranks
highest in ST population to the total population (6.6%) followed by Karnataka with the same
percentage (6.6%). Next to Tamil Nadu (19.0%), Andhra Pradesh has the second largest SC
population to the total population (16.2%) in South India.
 Source - Census of India 2001, provisional population totals paper – 2 of 2001 series -29
Source: Series 29, Primary Census Abstract, Census of India
In absolute terms, the SC population comprises of 123 lakhs and ST population 50 lakhs as
against the total population of 762.10 lakhs.  Among the districts in Andhra Pradesh, Nellore
(22%) has the highest SC population followed by Prakasam (21.3%) and West Godavari
(19.2%). In case of ST population, Khammam (26.5%)  followed by Adilabad (16.7%) and
Visakapatanam (14.5%) has reported the highest. Hyderabad being the capital city with no
rural population has reported the lowest concentration of ST population and second lowest in
SC population. Visakapatanam (7.6%) has the lowest SC population followed by Srikakulam
(9%) and Vizinagaram (10.6%).  Kurnool (2%), Cuddapah (2.4%) and West Godavari (2.5%)
reported the lowest ST population.
3.1.3 Sex Ratio
Sex ratio is one of the simple most indicators of overall status of women. It is an accepted
fact that female species is stronger in survival instinct among the two human species and
outnumber men in most countries. Nonetheless, the pathetic status of women in India is
reflected in its low sex ratio. Since 1901, it was  not only low at 972 but has declined
drastically to 927 by 1991. Applauds to the conscious effort, by 2001 it was raised marginally
to 933 per 1000 males. Concurrently, in Andhra Pradesh also, since 1951 for the first time in
2001, sex ratio showed an increase. It has increased from 972 in 1991 to 978 in 2001 which
is remarkably higher than the all India rate of 933 per 1000 males. However, amid the Indian
states, in sex ratio, Andhra Pradesh is ranked sixth among the Indian states and among the
four south Indian states it stands third in sex ratio with Karnataka tailing it.
In Andhra Pradesh, the highest sex ratio is reported in Nizamabad (1017) followed by
Srikakulam (1014) and Vizianagaram (1009) and the lowest in Hyderabad (933), followed by
Rangareddi (944) and Anantapur (958).  Though the sex ratio ranges from 1017 in
% of SC & ST Population to the total population
(2001 Census)
Category %
General 77.2
S C 16.2
S T 6.6
% of SC & ST population to total population 34
Nizamabad to 933 in the urban district of Hyderabad, among the 23 districts in the state,
eleven districts including Khammam, Kadapa, Medak, Warangal, Mahbubnagar, Prakasam,
Nalgonda, Kurnool, Anantapur, Ranga Reddy and Hyderabad form a continuous belt of sex
ratio below 978. It is quite remarkable to note that Hyderabad and Ranga Reddi are the most
urbanized districts in the state and Srikakulam, Nizamabad falls under the category with
largest rural population.
Sex Ratio among different Population Groups
The state average sex ratio among general, SC & ST  population is 978, 981 and 972
respectively. While in case of general population, 10 districts record sex ratio above the state
average, among SC & ST population, 11 and 14 districts recorded sex ratio above
respective state average.
Sex Ratio among different Population Groups
3.1.4 Declining Girl Child Sex Ratio in Andhra Pradesh
More alarming than the overall situation is the fact that while the sex ratio for overall
population has increased by six points during 1991-2001, in the age group 0 - 4 years, this
has declined sharply from 983 to 967 i.e. by 16  points in rural areas. In the urban areas the
sex ratio has reduced by 7 points from 965 to 958 per 1000 boys in the same period.
General SC ST
General SC ST35
Primary Source: Census Abstract Andhra Pradesh, Series – 29, Vol.1
Similarly, in our country the chances of girl children losing their life before reaching the age
of 14 years is higher than for boys. Various socio economic factors contribute to the loss of
her life. Sex ratio in the age group of 0 - 4 years and 5 - 14 years has always been skewed
negatively towards girls. In 1991, sex ratio in the age group of 0 – 4 years was 978 and in
2001 it has decreased to 965 per 1000 boys. In the  age group of 5 – 14 years, over the
years sex ratio has remained stable at 951 per 1000 boys.
More girls are born in rural than in urban areas of Andhra Pradesh and many more lose their
life in rural areas. In 1991, the sex ratio in rural areas was 983 and that of in urban areas
was 965 indicating that more girls are born in rural areas. By the time they reach the age of
14 years, the sex ratio in rural areas has declined to 948 compared to 959 in urban areas,
indicating high loss of life in rural areas.
 Over the decade, 1991 - 2001, the decline in sex ratio among 0 - 4 years has increased in
rural areas (980 to 967) by 16 points while the decline was not so steep in urban areas and
was by 7 points (965 to 958).  Contrary, the sex ratio among 5 - 14 years is more or less
stable in the rural areas (948 in 1991 to 947 in 2001) and has increased in urban areas (959
in 1991 to 962 in 2001).
3.1.5 Status of Women
Status of Indian women is highly disadvantageous compared to their counterparts in most
countries in the world. It begins from womb and follows her till the tomb - female foeticide,
female infanticide and low nutritional level because of sheer neglect of a female from birth,
through adolescence to youth and poor health arising out of it, early marriage and unsafe
motherhood, lack of medical attendance of childbirth and poor health, low level of illiteracy,
discriminatory socio-cultural values and attitudes, beliefs and practices towards female
which compound the already precarious condition of females especially in large parts of rural
India where three quarters of our population live.
Girls per 1000 boys in different age groups
Years  0-4
1991  983  948  965  959  978  951
2001  967  947  958  962  965  951 36
Though there is a clear preference for sons, the data from NFHS - 2 conducted in 1998 - 99
in Andhra Pradesh, shows some favorable trends for girls. NFHS – 2 states that despite the
existence of certain amount of son preference, there is an increasing tendency to limit the
family size with two children even when they are daughters. It also states that son
preference is relatively weak in urban areas, among literate women, and among women
whose husbands have at least completed high school. Son preference does not vary much
by religion, but scheduled caste and scheduled tribe women show more son preference than
women from other backward classes.( ref: NFHS – 2 at pg no.79). Strong son preference
combined with female foeticide and infanticide can lead to demographic imbalances. Even
otherwise, due to poor nutritional care, low resistance to disease, subsequent ill health and
lack of proper medical attention is also a major cause of loss of girl’s life. It is an accepted
finding that majority of the women seek medical care only when they are critically ill to carry
out their regular work.
High Female Mortality
Females suffer greater loss of life in all age groups from birth to the age of 34 years, with the
trend reversing after that. The Infant Mortality rate is 62 for the year 2002 and 59 for the year
2003 per 1000 live births
. The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) in Andhra Pradesh is at high
end among Indian states at 130 per one lakh live births in 2001. Similarly, only 68.3% of the
deliveries are attended by skilled health care personnel, depicts the plight of the women
. In
Andhra Pradesh, the male Crude Death Rate (CDR) is  higher than the female CDR
according to the NFHS – 2 and SRS surveys, but the age specific death rates in NFHS – 2 is
slightly higher for females than for males during early childhood ( age 0 -4 years) and the
reproductive years (age 15 – 49). The SRS, however, reports higher male than female
mortality in every age group.
 The Maternal Mortality Rate in Andhra Pradesh is also one of
the highest among the Indian states.
Early Marriage & Child Birth
Early marriage of girls often leads to the beginning of miseries and is a common practice in
most of the rural India. According to NFHS - 2, despite a clear cut evidence of rising age at
marriage, most women at 20 – 49 ages in Andhra Pradesh were married before they had
reached the legal age of 18 years. 83% of the rural women and 58% of urban women and
76% of all women married before 18 years. The median age for urban areas was recorded
as 17 years and for rural areas as 15 years and no significant difference was noted for age
at first cohabitation.
 Source: Statistical Abstract  Andhra Pradesh 2005 pg no 67
 NFHS – 2, Andhra Pradesh 1998 – 99 pg no 114, 121 37
Since there is steady increase in the age at marriage, it will be reflected in the age at first
child birth also. In Andhra Pradesh, the age at first delivery has been increasing steadily over
the last 10 years. The median age at first birth in rural areas has been noted as 17.9 years
and in urban areas as 19.5 years. But the remarkable feature is that among women who
have completed at least high school the age at first birth is 21 - 22 years while that for
illiterate women it is 17 - 18 years
. Amidst the malnutrition and ill -health, when a young girl
of 17 – 18 years who has not yet completed her physical growth gets pregnant, her body
starts competing with the growing fetus in her womb for nutrition putting her in unsafe high
risk motherhood. This sets the long cycle of low birth weight babies, weak babies and
Continuous conscious effort of social activists and policy makers to tackle the above issues
has resulted in several legislative measures and actions in favor of her. However, lack of
proper implementation has never allowed her to move further from her plight. Several
indicators like declining sex ratio, poor literacy rate, early marriage of girls etc proves it.
3.1.6 Increasing Accessibility of Education in India
Development cannot happen without the participation of the people and the fruits of
development cannot be enjoyed if people are not educated. Poverty is responsible for all the
social evils possible on earth. Poverty induces ill-health and illiteracy. Since India is largely a
patriarchal society irrespective of religious backgrounds women suffer the most from all
these social evils. To quicken the process of development literacy programmes are
essential. Amid literacy rates, female Literacy is considered to be a more sensitive index of
social development compared to overall literacy rates. Female literacy is negatively related
with fertility rates, population growth rates, infant and child mortality rates, and shows a
positive association with female age at marriage, life expectancy, participation in modern
sectors of the economy and above all girls’ enrolment in schools.
3.2 Trends in Literacy
With majority of the population living in rural area, increasing education accessibility for all
had always been a challenge for India. Since independence, the country has put in much of
her resources to spread education. In spite of the continuous efforts, the literacy rates in the
country have grown slowly. With a national literacy rate of 64.8% in 2001 which is a huge
 Source: NFHS – 2, Report on Andhra Pradesh  38
leap from 52.2% in 1991, India is moving forward in its mission to provide education for
Among the states in India, Kerala recorded the highest literacy rate of 90.9% followed by
Mizoram at 88.8%. Andhra Pradesh stands 28
 among the states with 60.5% literacy rate in
2001. Andhra Pradesh has the lowest literacy rate (60.47) among the four Southern states.
Though Andhra Pradesh ranks last in literacy among  the Southern states, there is
remarkable increase of 17.03% in the state literacy rate, during the decade 1991-01 and this
increase is highest when compared with increase in literacy rates of other Southern states
If we look at the state of literacy in Andhra Pradesh, we can see that the literacy rate was
44.09% points in the 1991 and 60.47% points in 2001. While by 1991, in three decades it
could achieve only an increase of 22.9%, by 2001, the increase in growth percentage is
17.02 over a period of 10 years. The state of literacy is not stagnant in the state and there
are positive signs of growth in literacy indeed.
Literacy Rates in Andhra Pradesh
Year Male  Female  Total
1901 8.54  0.61  4.63
1961 30.19  12.03  21.19
1991 55.13  32.72  44.09
2001 70.32  50.43  60.47
Source: Selected Educational Statistics DSE, AP 2000 - 2001
3.2.1 Literacy Status in Andhra Pradesh
The increase in literacy in Andhra Pradesh, especially in rural areas is quite remarkable. The
below table depicts the literacy status among different groups of population in the state
during 1991 and 2001. In Andhra Pradesh, literacy level has increased from 44.09 % in 1991
to 60.47% in 2001. With nearly 73% of the population living in rural areas, whose spatial
distribution is unequal, the state has recorded a growth of 18.76 points in rural areas which
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, DSE, AP 2000 - 2001
1901 1961 1991 2001
Male  Female 39
is higher than the urban areas. But even then in 2001, when compared to the literacy rate in
urban areas (76.9%), the rural literacy rate (54.5%) lags behind urban areas with a huge gap
of 22.4 points. It necessitates us to assess the challenges in spreading education and revisit
the efforts which have helped us to come so far and also to make necessary amendments to
face the challenge.
Similarly, there is a significant increase in literacy level among SC & ST population in the
state. Among SCs, literacy rate has increased from 31.59% in 1991 to 53.52% in 2001 and
among STs, it has increased from 17.16% in 1991 to  37.04% in 2001, which is nearly 20
points increase in both groups. Nonetheless, the fact that they are still lagging makes it
essential to pay greater attention to bring them on equal status.
3.2.2 Literacy among SC & ST Population
According to 2001 Census, the SC & ST population has reported an average of 53.7 % and
37% literacy level in Andhra Pradesh.  Highest literacy level among ST population is
reported from Hyderabad (55.4%) and West Godavari (50.9%) following it. Among SC
population also, Hyderabad (69.4%) and West Godavari (68.7%) has reported highest
literacy level. Among the districts, Nellore which  has the highest SC population of 22%,
reported 65.1% literacy level which is above state  average. Though below state average,
Khammam which has 26.5% of the state ST population has reported 57.1% literacy level.  
Literacy Rates in different population groups
3.2.3 Inter district disparity in literacy rates in Andhra Pradesh
Except Mahabubnagar which has lowest literacy rate  of 44.41%, all other districts in the
state have recorded literacy level of more than 50% where as 10 years back, only three
districts had more than 50% literacy level. According to 1991 Census data also,
Mahabubnagar (29.58%) have the lowest literacy level and Hyderabad (71.52%) have the
Literacy Rates 2001 Census
Total General SC ST40
highest literacy level. The other districts which have low literacy level in the state are
Vizinagaram (51.07%), Medak (51.65%), Nizamabad (52.02%) and Adilabad (52.68%).
Hyderabad (78.8%) has the highest literacy followed by West Godavari (73.53%), Krishna
(68.85%) and Chittoor (66.77%).
In terms of growth in total literacy rate, West Godavari ranks first among the districts in
increase of literacy levels by achieving a growth of 20.16 points compared to 1991 literacy
rate. Adilabad, Medak, Nalgonda and Srikakulam follow West Godavari in growth in literacy
rate. Least growth in literacy rate is recorded in Hyderabad (7.28), Kurnool and Ananthapur.
The average growth among the districts is recorded as 16.50 points.
The highest growth in literacy rate among men is observed in Adilabad which was only
45.04% in 1991 and rose to 64.98% in 2001. West Godavari accounts for the highest growth
in literacy rate among women. Srikakulam has shown 20.16% growth that is little less than
West Godavari between 1991 and 2001. Hyderabad has  the highest literacy rate among
both men & women. In spite of it being a capital city and with highest literacy rate in the state
it has yet a long way to go to touch the 100% literacy mark.
3.2.4 Female Literacy in Andhra Pradesh - At a Glance
In 2001, the female literacy level in Andhra Pradesh is recorded as 50.43% which is 17.71
points higher than the literacy level of 32.72 % in 1991. The male literacy is 70.32 % in 2001
while it was 55.13 % in 1991. As stated above, the  percentage increase of literacy level
among male population (15.19 points) is lesser than among the female population (17.71) in
the state. Nonetheless, the below table shows that fourteen out of the 23 districts records a
variation of more than 20 points between male and female literacy level even in 2001. This
shows the urgency to formulate specific strategies to improve female literacy in the state.
Difference in Male/ Female Literacy Levels among Districts
Difference in male/female
literacy rate in points
Number of
0-10 points
(range 9.06 - 10.24)
2 East Godavari, West Godavari
10-20 points
(range 11.2 - 19.56)
Hyderabad, Krishna, Nellore, Guntur, Khammam, Ranga
Reddy, Vishakapatnam
Above 20 points
(range 21.84 - 26.29)
Chittoor, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, Warangal, Prakasam,
Karimnagar, Nalgonda, Adilabad, Mahabubnagar,
Ananthapur, Nizamabad, Medak, Kurnool, Cuddapah 41
3.2.5 Area-wise Variations in Literacy among Population Groups
In 2001 census urban male has the highest literacy  rates with 83.19% followed by urban
female with 68.74%, which is 8.38 and 12.33 points more than what it had been in the 1991
census. Rural male ranks lower than both urban male & female in terms of literacy rates and
rural female lagged behind rural male (who already lag behind urban male and female) both
in the1991 & 2001 census by more than 20 percent points.
Area wise Literacy Rates
1991 Census 2001Census
 Male Female  Total   Male Female  Total
Rural  47.28 23.92 35.74 65.35 43.5 54.5
Urban  75.81 56.41 66.32  83.19 68.74 76.09
Literacy rate among SC male is less than rural female and SC female ranks lower than SC
male but preceded ST male who in turn is followed by ST female. The literacy rate is highest
among urban males and lowest among ST female. These disadvantages children actually
constitute the bulk of bonded labor.
Disparities in Literacy Rates among male & female in different population groups 1991
& 2001 Census
Literacy Rates
Male   75.81 83.19
Female   56.41 68.74
Rural Male 47.28 65.35
Female   23.92 43.50
SC Male 41.88 63.51
SC Female  20.92 43.35
ST Male  25.25 47.66
ST Female  8.68 26.11
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Urban Male
Urban Female
Rural Male
Rural Female
SC Male
SC Female
ST Male
ST Female
Literacy Rates  1991 Census Literacy Rates  2001 Census
Low female literacy rate among these communities is primarily due to poverty compounded
by their low caste status. In general, girls in Indian society have less access to every
resource that generates income. In the case of SCs  & STs the access in mainstream
resources are further minimized because of their low social status. This is why the most 42
disadvantages sections are the SC & ST female while the latter’s condition is worst. The
scheduled tribes being away from mainstream culture, the learning materials provided make
little sense to them as they can hardly relate those in their daily activities and this is one of
the reasons being cited for children’s learning difficulties.
 In the rural areas, especially in case of the dalits and the tribals, NGOs have a significant
role to play in the growth and spread of literacy among these communities. The question of
reaching all parts of the state is not possible for the state alone. It requires the NGOs in
fulfilling the task of spread of literacy, so the question of empowering the good NGOs can be
made an issue.
3.2.6 Rural - Urban variation in Male & female literacy level in the districts
1991- 2001
The districts having maximum and minimum literacy rates among males and females in rural
and urban areas of the state during 1991 and 2001 are given below for the purpose of
comparative analysis on the literacy position. The literacy rates in the table reveal that the
rate of literacy for male and female has never gone hand in hand. In the 1991 census,
Kadapa accounted for the highest literacy rate among males (58.7%) in the rural areas.
While West Godavari accounted for the highest rate of female literacy (43.31%) in the rural
areas. The lowest male literacy (36.29%) in the rural areas was witnessed by
Mahabubnagar, while lowest female literacy in Adilabad (13.26%). In 1991, the male and
female literacy gap in highest literacy rate was 15 points while gap between lowest male and
female literacy rate was 23 points.
But by 2001, West Godavari came to the leading position in rural literacy among male and
female with 76.33 and 67.29 respectively with a reduced gap of 11 points. However,
Mahabubnagar maintained its lowest level in male literacy level and also became lowest in
female literacy level with a more or less same gender gap of 22 points.  43
Comparative Analysis of Male & Female literacy in Rural & Urban areas among
Districts in 1991 & 2001
     Rural - 1991 census       Urban - 1991 census
Male Female  Male Female
Kadapa 58.7
43.31  Nalgonda 81.27  Hyderabad 63.56
Mahbubnagar 36.29  Adilabad 13.64  Adilabad 68.63  Adilabad 44.12
     Rural - 2001 census       Urban - 2001 census
67.29  Nalgonda 88.55
Mahbubnagar 53.28  Mahbubnagar 31.89  Kurnool 76.45  Kurnool 57.37
In 1991, Urban Nalgonda male (81.27%) reported the highest literacy rate while Hyderabad
accounted for the highest female literacy rate (63.56%). Adilabad experienced the lowest
literacy rate among men (68.63%) and not surprisingly it also accounted for the lowest
female literacy rate (44.12%). The gender gap among the maximum and minimum literacy
rate was 18 points and 28 points respectively.
Though, in 2001, Nalgonda maintained its highest urban male literacy rate at 88.55%, West
Godavari topped female literacy level at 75.71%. The lowest urban male and female literacy
level is reported from Kurnool district at 76.45% and 57.37% respectively. The gender gap
among the maximum and minimum literacy rate was reduced to 13 points and 19 points
In general, there is decline in gender gap in literacy levels in rural and urban areas but the
decrease is remarkably low in rural areas. It is clear that Adilabad and West Godavari have
achieved clear cut edge over other districts in improving their literacy levels. A detailed
analysis of Adilabad and West Godavari districts to understand the success in increasing
literacy level will be worthwhile.  44
Chapter IV
Reaching the Girl child
 Enrolment Ratios
 Drop Outs 45
4. 1 Access
“The concept of a National System of Education implies that, up to a given level, all students,
irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex, have access to education of a comparable
quality” says the Nation Policy on Education, 1986.  It goes on to say “to promote equality, it
will be necessary to provide for equal opportunity to all, not only in access, but also in the
condition for success”.  
This is quite the essence of the universalisation task, and means that needs of educationally
disadvantaged groups would have to be given maximum attention.  The largest such groups
are: -
 Girls and women
 Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes
 The handicapped, and
 Other educationally disadvantaged groups i.e. working children, slum-dwellers,
inhabitants of hilly, desert and other inaccessible areas, etc.
4.1.1 Villages & Habitations in Rural Areas of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh has an area of 2.75 lakhs sq. kms covering 8.37% of the total area of India.
It is the largest among the Southern states of India in respect of area, and ranks fifth among
the states of India in this regard. The state comprises of three natural regions which can be
distinguished with one another from their historical, cultural and economic backgrounds -
Coastal Andhra region, Rayalaseema and Telangana region.
Ananthapur district with an area of 19,130 sq.kms has the highest area among the districts.
Hyderabad district with 217 sq.kms ranks last in respect of area. The State is divided into 23
  which are subdivided into 1117 panchayat mandals.
Source: Census of India, 2001
* A habitation is a distinct cluster of houses existing in a compact manner with a local name. A village may consist of one or
more habitations and one of the habitation may bear the name of the village itself. Andhra Pradesh is marked with small
habitations which are widely spread across the state.
4. Reaching the Girl child 46
Among the districts in the state, Vishakapatnam district has highest number of villages
(3107) followed by Srikakulam district with 1709 villages. Guntur has least number of villages
(696) followed by West Godavari district with 834 villages.
Chittoor district is having highest number of rural habitations (9219) followed by
Visakapatnam district with 5282 rural habitations.  Nizamabad has least number of rural
habitations (1518) followed by Ranga Reddy district with 1529 rural habitations. However the
highest rural population (38.31 lakhs) is in East Godavari district and the least rural
population (17.30 lakhs) is in Ranga Reddy district
As per VII All India School Education Survey (2002), there are 26,646 villages and 66,416
habitations in the rural areas of the State. As on  30.09.2002, there is an estimated
population of 7.69 crores in the state. Of this a population of 5.60 crores is in the rural areas
constituting 73% of the total population. This indicates that the population of the state is
predominantly inhabited in rural areas.
Rural Habitations in various population slabs - 2002
86% of the rural population resides in 28912 (43.5%) habitations which have more than 500
people living in it. There are 37504 rural habitations (56%) with population less than 500 and
having 14 % of the rural population. Out of these 37504 habitations, 41% of the habitations
(27328 habitations) have a population of less than 300 and they have only 7% of the total
rural population. Considering the geographical terrain and spatial distribution of habitations
which are scattered and delinked, providing primary schooling facilities within one kilometre
of all such rural habitations is a daunting task before the state.
The challenge for the state is to provide quality education to the fewer number of children in
the 41.15% habitations which have population less than 300. The villages are usually
scattered and remote with poor all time weather connectivity. Even when we manage to
reach the population, added to the above, the question of quality of education arises. On one
side, most of the children in these remote regions  are first generation learners, poor and
 Source -7
 All India School Education Survey, 2002 – the figures are as on 30
 Sept, 2002
Population Slabs
Below 300  300 - 499  Below 500  Above 500  Total
No. of Habitations  27328  10176  37504  28912  66416
% of habitations  41.15  15.32  56.47  43.53  100.00
Population   4003230  3952647  7955877  48082755  56038632
% of population  7.14  7.05  14.20  85.80  100.00 47
have little exposure to the outside world and have low motivation to study. On the other side,
poor infrastructure and teaching facilities in the  school, non availability of teachers, even
when available are less skilled and less qualified  and who hardly motivate the children to
In the traditional Indian society, according to the scriptures and customs, women are to be
always under the protective wings of her father or brother, husband or son depending on her
life stage. Even today, they are considered to have special needs for physical protection and
the society expects protection in terms of good school buildings, schools served by lady
teachers and separate toilet facilities for girls etc. The closer the school is to home the lesser
the parents worry about sending them to schools, as girls can be kept under watch. In
habitations which are sparsely populated and dispersed, transport facilities are difficult and
expensive; there distance is likely to matter more in enrolment and retention of girl child.
4.1.2 Expansion of schooling facilities
The Government of Andhra Pradesh has made tremendous effort to address these issues
through state-wide interventions as well as area-specific educational programmes. It has put
in concerted efforts in the expansion of schooling facilities.  The number of primary schools
increased nearly two times, upper primary schools by thirty times and secondary schools by
fifteen times between 1956 – 57 and 2004 – 05.  This has facilitated spread of both
elementary and secondary education to remote areas  of the state. There has been
substantial expansion of elementary schools in the state in the recent years. The number of
primary schools increased from 29000 in 1956-57 to  55900 in 2000-01. The expansion of
schooling facilities continued during the current decade. In 2004, primary schools have
further increased to 61680, upper primary schools to 16667 and secondary schools
increased to 14342 .
4.1.3 Expansion of schooling facilities in Rural & Urban areas
Rural primary schools increased from 44,412 in 1993 to 53,883 in 2002, while urban primary
schools increased from 4729 to 7245 during the same period. The growth in upper primary
schools is phenomenal during this period. Rural schools increased from 4724 to 11,904 and
urban schools increased from 1657 to 3191. The growth in secondary schools is also
significant during this period. Rural secondary schools increased from 4762 to 8280 and
urban secondary schools increased from 2197 to 4085. Girls’ schools have also increased
phenomenally in both rural and urban areas. 48
Area-wise Schooling Facilities (Total & Girl’s schools) 1993 – 2002
Primary schools
1993 2002 Growth % 1993-2002
Total  Girls  Total  Girls  Total  Girls
Rural 44412  119  53883 614  21.33  415.97
Urban 4729  93  7245 246  53.2  164.52
Total 49141  212  61128 860  24.39  305.66
Upper primary schools
1993 2002 Growth % 1993-2002
Total  Girls  Total  Girls  Total  Girls
Rural 4724  29  11904  149  151.99  413.79
Urban 1657  38  3191  65  92.58  71.05
Total 6381  67  15095  214  136.56  219.4
Secondary schools
1993 2002 Growth % 1993-2002
Total  Girls  Total  Girls  Total  Girls
Rural 4762  139  8280  414  73.88  197.84
Urban 2197  347  4085  407  85.94  17.29
Total 6959  486  12365  821  77.68  68.93
4.1.4 Growth of Educational facilities in villages
90’s have been watershed decade for expansion of schooling facilities.  In 1993, 23535
(88%) villages as against a total of 26650 villages had facility of primary school within the
villages.  In 2002, 24774 (93%) villages out of 26646 villages had facility of primary school
within the village. While the number of villages having the upper primary facility within the
village increased from 8111 (30%) in 1993 to 13598 (51%) in 2002, the number of villages
having the Secondary schools facility within the village increased from 4317 (16%) to 6447
(24%) in the same period.
Source: VI AIES, 1993 Report, VII AISES, 2002, Data Tables49
Villages by population slab having facilities for Education
No. of Villages
% inc
No. of villages
having facilities
% of villages
having facilities
1993 2002
1993 2002 1993 2002
 Primary  23535 24774 88.31 92.97
 Upper Primary   8111 13598 30.44 51.03
26650 26646 -0.02
4317 6447 16.20 24.20
4.1.5 Education facilities in Rural Habitations
Providing elementary education to all, with an ever increasing population is not an easy task.
The number of rural habitations increased from 62905 in 1993 to 66416 in 2002 (increase of
5.8%).  The facility for primary education is available within the habitation in 51482
habitations (77.5%) and within a walking distance of 1.0 km in 61594 (92.7%) habitations.
98.7% of the rural population living in 66,416 habitations has access to primary school within
a radius of 1km.
The facility for upper primary education is available within the habitation in 15917 habitations
(23.9%) and within a walking distance of 3.0 km in 51605 (77.7%) habitations. 91% of the
rural population have access to upper primary school within a radius of 3km. The facility for
secondary education is available within the habitation in 6738 habitations (10%) and within a
walking distance of 5.0 km in 48148 (72.5%) habitations. 85% of the rural population have
access to secondary school within a radius of 5km.
Rural Population / Habitations served by Schools, 2002
Primary Schools
% of Population served
% of Habitations served
Upto 1km M ore than 1km
Source: VII AISES, 200250
Upper Primary Schools
% of Habitations served
Upto 3km M ore than 3km
Secondary Schools
% of Population served
% of Habitations served
Upto 5km M ore than 5km
4.1.6 Education facilities in Rural Habitations in various population slabs
A close look at the habitations in various population slabs shows the expansion of schooling
facilities in the densely populated habitations. In 2002
, 99% of the habitations with
population 5000 and above are provided with primary schooling facility within one kilometre.
88% of the habitations with population below 500 and 93% of the population in this
population slab have access to primary school within a radius of 1km.
Primary -2002
No of habitations served by primary
education facility
Within the
 upto 1.0 km
% of population served
No of
No. % No. %
within the
Upto 1.0
5000 & above 1073 1069  99.63  1072  99.91  99.71  99.92
2000 - 4999 5597 5556  99.27  5582  99.73  99.27  99.75
1000 - 1999 9789 9598  98.05  9729  99.39  98.16  99.43
500 - 999 12453 11923  95.74  12324  98.96  96.01  99.02
Below 500 37504 23336  62.22  32887  87.69  77.53  93.39
Total 66416 51482 77.51 61594 92.74 95.47 98.68
% of Population served
99% of the habitations with population 5000 and above are provided with middle level
schooling facility within three kilometres. 68.8% of the habitations with population below 500
and 72.8% of the population in this slab have access to upper primary school within a radius
of 3km.
Upper Primary-2002
No of habitations served by upper
primary education facility
 upto 3.0 km
% of population served
No of
No. % No. %
within the
Upto 3.0
5000 & above 1073 1042  97.11  1072  99.91  97.34  99.93
2000 – 4999 5597 5009  89.49  5497  98.21  90.53  98.42
1000 – 1999 9789 5884  60.11  8918  91.10  62.57  91.75
500 – 999 12453 2785  22.36  10300  82.71  23.90  83.02
Below 500 37504 1197  3.19  25818  68.84  48.00  72.85
Total 66416 15917  23.97  51605  77.70  62.10  90.97
99% of the habitations with population 5000 and above are provided with secondary
schooling facility within five kilometres. 65% of the habitations with population below 500 and
68.8% of the population have access to Secondary school within a radius of 5km.
No of habitations served by Secondary
education facility
Within the
 upto 5.0 km
% of population served
No of
No. % No. %
within the
Upto 5.0 km
5000 & above 1073 961  89.56  1067  99.44  91.32  99.62
2000 – 4999 5597 3166  56.57  5100  91.12  59.90  91.94
1000 – 1999 9789 1694  17.31  7949  81.20  18.79  81.51
500 – 999 12453 592  4.75  9493  76.23  5.04  76.40
Below 500 37504 325  0.87  24539  65.43  1.25  68.84
Total 66416 6738  10.15  48148  72.49  37.99  84.91
4.1.7 Education facilities in SC habitations
Establishment of primary schools in smaller habitations had led to phenomenal growth in the
primary schools facilities and enrolment of children particularly among girls, Scheduled
Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST).
The number of SC habitations increased from 6985 in 1993 to 7920 in 2002 (increase of
13.4%).  7438 SC habitations (94%) have facility of primary school within 1km. 98% of the
population in these habitations have the facility within 1km walking distance. 6,650 SC 52
habitations (84%) and 90% of the population are served by upper primary school within 3km
distance. 6275 SC habitations (79%) and 85% of the  population are served by secondary
school within 5km distance.
4.1.8 Education facilities in ST habitations
The number of ST habitations increased from 13171 in 1993 to 16,317 in 2002 (increase of
24%).  13,736 ST habitations (84%) and 94% of the population have facility of primary
school within 1km walking distance. 8,673 ST habitations (53%) and 66% of the population
are served by upper primary school within 3km distance. 8270 ST habitations (51%) and
61% of the population are served by secondary school within 5km distance. Girijan Vidya
Vikas Kendras at primary level and Ashram schools at middle and secondary levels are
provided in the 11 districts which have predominant tribal population.
4.1.9 Ratio among various stages
DPEP and SSA have facilitated establishment of primary schools in the un-served
habitations, especially through alternative schools in habitations with low population. This
has helped in raising the ratio between upper primary and primary schools to 1:2 which is
one of the mandates of SSA.
Expansion in schooling facilities under the two programmes of DPEP and SSA and also the
initiatives of the state government has helped to reduce the ratio between primary and upper
primary schools from 1:4 in 1993 to 1:2 in 2002. State government have opened 7351 new
Primary schools in school-less habitations and upgraded 4352 primary schools to upper
primary schools. The ratio between upper primary and secondary schools is also 1:2 which
indicates phenomenal expansion at all levels.  
Ratio of Primary - Upper Primary Schools
Upper Primary Schools - Secondary Schools
Schools with  Schools with
Primary Stage
Primary Stage
1993  49141 13340 4:1 13340 6959 2:1
2000  55901 20081 3:1 20081 10277 2:1
2002  61128 27460 2:1 27460 12365 2:1
2004  61680 31009 2:1  31009 14342 2:1
Selected Education Statistics (of the respective years), Director of School Education, AP, Hyderabad 53
4.1.10 Management - wise Distribution of Schools
The 1990’s in India have witnessed increase in private participation in many fields ranging
from manufacturing goods, power generation, to service sectors like hospitals and schools.
Private sector has made its presence felt in the field of education both in rural and urban
areas. In the same period, State Government initiatives coupled with the centrally sponsored
programmes of DPEP and SSA have facilitated expansion of schools in the government
sector. The massive holistic programmes of DPEP and SSA have made heavy investments
in terms of providing infrastructure and teachers in the elementary schools.
Private schools have a right to exist under the Constitution. In the high literacy districts of
East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna and Hyderabad districts, the participation of private
sector dates back to the early 1950s and 60s.
Educational institutions established by individuals, groups and various religious institutions
continue to provide education under the private sector. However, in recent years private
education institutions have gained new prominence and meaning. Increased demand for
private education by parents and decline in quality of education in government schools with
its massive expansion in the same period are causes of concern.
Management – wise Schools 1993 -2002
Category: Primary Schools  
G LB PA PU Total
No. 3,486 42,174 1,997 1,484 49,141
%  7.09 85.82 4.06 3.02 100
No. 5,486 49,773 2,282 3,587 61,128
%  8.97 81.42 3.73 5.87 100
Category:  Upper Primary Schools  
G LB PA PU Total
No. 365 4,734 441 841 6,381
%  5.72 74.19 6.91 13.18 100
No. 544 10,244 520 3,787 15,095
%  3.6 67.86 3.44 25.09 100
Category:  Secondary Schools    
G LB PA PU Total
No. 656 4,636 735 932 6,959
%  9.43 66.62 10.56 13.39 100
No. 1,134 6,807 873 3,551 12,365
%  9.17 55.05 7.06 28.72 100
G- Government, LB - Local Body, PA - Pvt. Aided, PU - Pvt. Unaided
Source: Report of VI AIES, 1993 and Tables of VII All India Educational Survey, 2002 in Andhra Pradesh 54
The VI and VII AISES conducted in the state in 1993 and 2002 throw light on the trends in
the percentage share of schools under various managements. The share of private schools
in rural areas is not that significant. The rural areas in the state still depend upon
government and local body schools. At primary level, government/local body schools,
together form 90% of the total schools. In urban areas, however, the size of the private
sector, particularly unaided schools, has increased tremendously. In urban areas, 32% of the
primary, 62% of the upper primary and 58% of the secondary schools are under private
unaided sector.
In terms of absolute expansion, government and local body primary schools increased from
forty five thousand in 1993 to fifty five thousand in 2002 (ie, 21% increase). Similarly, upper
primary schools in government and local bodies has increased from five thousands in 1993
to eleven thousand in 2002 (112% increase) and for secondary schools from five thousand
to eight thousands (50% increase). In spite of the  phenomenal increase in numbers, the
percentage share of government/local body upper primary schools has declined from 80% in
1993 to 71% in 2002. Similarly, in secondary schools category the share has declined from
76% in 1993 to 64% in 2002. On the other hand, private unaided primary schools increased
from 1484 in 1993 to 3587 in 2002 (140 % increase). The expansion in upper primary and
secondary schools was also rapid in the period with an increase from 841 to 3787 (350%
increase) and 932 to 3551 (280% increase) in 2002 respectively. With a declining population
trend, the above said two competing bodies have increased tremendously in infrastructure.
But, a brief view at the enrolment in these schools in the next session shows that the private
schools are bagging away the children from government sector, both in rural and urban
4.1.11 District – wise schooling facilities:
93 % of the rural habitations in the state have primary school facility within a walking
distance of 1 km. In fifteen districts of the state more than 93% of the rural habitations have
the facility within 1 km. While 77.7% of the rural habitations in the state have upper primary
school facility within a walking distance of 3 km,  72.5% of the habitations have secondary
school facility within 5 km. In case of upper primary stage, fourteen districts and twelve
districts in case of secondary have recorded more than their respective state average in
having the educational facility as for the norms.
Chitoor(9218), Visakapatnam(5282), Cuddapah(3999),  Srikakulam(3867), Adilabad(3378),
Mahaboobnagar(3247) districts have high number of rural habitations. Whereas 55
Nizamabad(1517), Kurnool(1528), Rangareddi(1529), Guntur(1738) and Krishna(1761) have
less than two thousand rural habitations. Krishna,  Rangareddi, Nizamabad and West
Godavari districts which have fewer habitations have almost universalised  access at
elementary level and to a great extent at secondary level. In districts of Visakapatnam(5282),
Adilabad(3378) and Khammam(2911) which have of high number of rural habitations and
which are predominantly inhabited by tribals, access to schools, particularly upper primary
and secondary levels is a matter of concern.
4.2 Enrolment
4.2.1 Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE)
In the last decade, there is a phenomenal expansion of schooling facilities and enrolment at
all levels of education in Andhra Pradesh. However, retention of children has not shown
concomitant growth with enrolment. The Constitutional commitment to provide free and
compulsory education to all children up to the age of fourteen years, within ten years of its
promulgation remains unfulfilled. This is largely on account of the inability of the system to
retain children. Mere expansion of schooling facilities will not result in enrolment and
retention of the children. Issues like infrastructure facilities, quality of teaching, relevance of
curriculum also play a major role in universalisation of enrolment and retention. A strong
gender focus has shown positive results in enrolment of girls at elementary level.
4.2.2 Growth in Enrolment at Various Stages of Education
There has been a phenomenal increase in enrolments at all levels of education in the last
four decades. In comparative terms, primary enrolment for girls has increased about four
fold, whereas the increase at subsequent levels is  far higher, i.e., twenty five times for
middle, forty times for secondary in the period 1956-57 to 2004-05. The growth rate of girls’
enrolment is higher than that of boys on account of starting from a much lower base and also
on the account of sustained state effort to promote education of girls.
The enrolment of girls has grown steadily in the last five decades.  The number of girls at
primary stage has gone up from 9.1 lakhs in 1956-57 to 37.98 lakhs in 2004-05. The
corresponding increase at upper primary level is from 0.48 lakhs to 12.27 lakhs. The
increase at secondary level is from 0.33 lakhs to 13.09 lakhs. The enrolment of girls has
increased significantly at all levels of education in this period particularly at primary level.  56
Enrolment by stages 1956-57 to 2000-01
Primary Stage ( I-V)
I –V
Boys Girls Total
1956-57  1554039 910015 2464054
2004-05  3894649 3797762 7692411
by  3 4 3
38.95 37.98
Boys Girls
1956-57 2004-05
Upper Primary Stage ( VI-VII)
Year Boys Girls Total
1956-57  184961 48325 233286
2004-05  1349585 1226599 2576184
by  7 25 11
Boys Girls
1956-57 2004-05
Secondary Stage (VIII-X)
Year Boys Girls Total
1956-57  177064 32894 209958
2004-05  1525743 1309430 2835173
by  9 40 14
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, 2000-01, and 2004-05 C&DSE.
4.2.3 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) – Achieving Gender Parity in Primary and
Secondary Levels of Education
The millennium development goal sets a target of achieving gender parity in primary and
secondary levels by 2005. In terms of enrolment at  primary level, Andhra Pradesh has
achieved the target by 2004 itself. The growth rate of enrolment of girls at Upper primary and
secondary levels is rapid and the current boy-girl ratios are 52: 47 and 54: 46 respectively.
However, attaining gender parity at upper primary and secondary levels remain to be
achieved. If the current trend of growth in girls’ enrolment is maintained, particularly at upper
Boys Girls
1956-57 2004-0557
primary (8% per annum) and secondary levels (13% per annum), gender parity can be
achieved by 2008 positively.
Gender Parity in Enrolment
Percentage of Enrolment to Total Enrolment
Year  Primary  Stage Upper Primary Stage Secondary Stage
Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls
1956 63.07 36.93 79.29 20.71 84.33 15.67
2000 51.12 48.88 55.26 44.74 57.15 42.85
2004 50.63 49.37 52.39 47.61 53.81 46.19
Target Year
51 49 51 49 52 48
Target Year
51 49 51 49 51 49
4.2.4 Stage -wise Enrolment in rural-urban areas
The enrolment has increased in both rural and urban areas in the period 1993 to 2002. The
enrolment in all stages (classes I – X) has increased from 100.39 lakhs to 134.45 lakhs in
this period. The enrolment has increased by 37.5% in rural areas and 25.7% in urban areas.
However the growth in rural enrolment is significantly high in upper primary (84.6%) and
secondary (84.7%) levels.
Considering that 73% of the state population lives in rural areas, educational opportunities
after the primary level are disproportionately bagged by urban girls. Rural girls constitute
75% of all girl students at the primary level. This drops to 67% at middle level and 59% at
secondary level.
Stage- wise, Area- wise Enrolment of Girls
1993 2002
Sl. No. Stage
% of Girls
to total
% of Girls to
total girls
Primary Stage ( I-V)        
i) Rural 2354032 72.88 3184521 74.90
ii) Urban 875917 27.12 1066909 25.10
Upper Primary Stage (VI-VII)      
i) Rural 333225 55.11 776733 67.19
ii) Urban 271414 44.89 379236 32.81 58
Secondary Stage (VIII- X)      
i) Rural 254394 46.07 620432 59.04
ii) Urban 297845 53.93 430446 40.96
All Stages ( I- X)        
i) Rural 2941651 67.06 4581686 70.94
ii) Urban 1445176 32.94 1876591 29.06
Source:  Tables of Seventh All India Education Survey, 2002  
4.2.5 Growth Rate in Enrolment
The growth rate of girls enrolment at primary stage between 1993(VI AIES) and 2002(VII
AIES) is 32% as compared to 13% for boys. The growth rate of girls enrolment at both upper
primary and secondary levels has crossed 90% while the boys growth rate is 47% and 44%
respectively. The growth in enrolment of rural girls in upper primary and secondary stages is
phenomenal in this period, with growth rates of 133 and 144 percent respectively.
Area wise Growth rate in Enrolment 1993 - 2002
Primary Stage (I-V)
Area Boys Girls Total
 Rural 11.37 35.28 22.02
Urban 20.09 21.80 20.93
 Total 13.44 31.63 21.74
Boys Girls
 Rural Urban
Upper Primary Stage ( VI-VII)
Area Boys Girls Total
 Rural 57.05 133.10 84.59
 Urban 26.74 39.73 32.84
 Total 46.66 91.18 64.64
Boys Girls
 Rural Urban
Supra Note 3059
Secondary Stage ( VIII-X )
Area Boys Girls Total
 Rural 57.62 143.89 84.73
 Urban 22.63 44.52 32.57
 Total 43.90 90.29 61.38
Boys Girls
 Rur al Ur ban
4.2.6 Percentage share of girl’s enrolment to total
The percentage share of girls has shown a steady increase at all levels. During 1956-57 to
2000-01, the share of girls in primary stage went up from 37 to 48 percent.  At upper primary
stage, the percentage share of girls went up from 20.7 to 44.7%, in this period and has
further increased to 47.6 in 2004 -05. Similarly, at secondary stage their share has risen
from 15.6 in 1956-57 to 42.8 in 2000-01 and further to 46.1 in 2004 - 05. A close look at the
data shows that, girls lag behind boys at all levels. The proportion of girls declines with every
successive higher level. Although girls’ enrolment  has grown at a faster rate than that of
boys, they continue to lag behind, with their proportion to the total enrolment going down
with every successive higher level.
Percentage of girls in school enrolment 1956-57 to 2004-05
( I-V)
Upper Primary
1956-57 37.08 20.71 15.67 34.22
2000-01 48.88 44.74 42.85 47.29
2004-05 49.37 47.61 46.19 48.34
Supra Note 3460
Percentage of girls in school enrolment 1956-57 to 2004-05
Primary Stage ( I-V)
Boys Girls
Upper Primary Stage (VI-VII)
Boys Girls
Secondary Stage ( VIII-X )
Boys Girls
4.2.7 Area - wise Percentage share of girl’s enrolment to total
A close look at rural-urban growth between 1993(VI AIES) and 2002(VII AIES) clearly shows
a marked improvement in girls enrolment and their percentage share in all stages of
education. At primary level, percentage of rural girls is on par with urban girls. However,
percentage of rural girls at upper primary and secondary levels remain at 45.7 and 41.5
respectively, while the percentage share of girls at all levels in urban areas has crossed 49
percent. Male-female gaps are closing in urban areas but continue to be wide in rural areas. 61
Strategies are to be focussed on enrolment and retention of rural girls at upper primary and
secondary levels.
Area - wise Percentage of Girls Enrolment 1993-2002
1993 2002
Rural  Urban Total Rural  Urban Total
Primary Stage  44.54 48.89 45.64 49.38 49.25 49.35
Upper Primary Stage  36.22 47.00 40.38 45.74 49.44 46.89
Secondary Stage  31.43 45.40 37.68 41.49 49.49 44.43
Source: Report of VI AIES,1993 and Tables of VII All India Educational Survey, 2002 in Andhra Pradesh
4.2.8 Management - wise Enrolment
Private unaided schools, which by and large run from classes I to X make their presence felt
in upper primary and secondary schools, with percentage share of 24% and 26%
respectively. Nearly one fourth of the total enrolment in these two types of schools is in
private unaided sector. In rural areas, their share in enrolment is 5.5%, 15.3% and 11.9% in
primary, upper primary and secondary schools respectively. However, in urban areas, their
share is 42, 51.9 and 51.4% respectively. In urban areas of the state, more than 51% of the
children in upper primary and high schools are captured by the fee- charging private unaided
4.2.9 Participation of Girls in Higher levels of Education:
There is a tremendous increase in the participation of girls at all levels of education. The
participation of girls in diploma level technical education is 31% in technical, industrial, arts
and crafts courses and in polytechnics. Girls form  nearly half of those receiving primary
teacher training in DIETs. In higher education, women form about 40% of the Arts and
Science students. Commerce education is emerging as another strong area with women
forming 40% of the graduate level and more than half of the post graduate students. In the
three major professional courses at the first degree level, women form 44% of the B. Ed.
students, 35% in MBBS and 31% in B.E./ B.Sc. (Engg.)/ B.Arch).
4.2.10 Declining Enrolment in Schools – A cause of concern:
Reaching the children in the remote rural areas is  no more a challenge for the state.
According to the norms, primary schools are provided in almost all the habitations and
villages in the state. But the problem lies in isolation of schools, irregularity in teacher
attendance, lack of teaching facilities and retention of children from far off and remote
villages. This scenario is aggravated by the increase in private schools even in villages and 62
decrease in population since last decade. The percentage of primary schools without even
fifty school children enrolled has increased from 26 % in 1993 to 49 % in 2004. Similar is the
case of upper primary schools, the percentage has increased from 2.55 % in 1993 to 15% in
2004. However, the secondary schools are showing stability in enrolment throughout the
decade. As seen in the earlier sections, lack of suitable access for schooling of rural girls at
secondary level of education and lack of proper access for schooling of S.T. girls at Upper
Primary and Secondary levels are also issues to be addressed.
In this scenario, increasing the number of primary schools may not be an answer to address
the issue of increasing literacy level and girl’s education, in fact what we may have to
address is to increase the monitoring and quality of education. Efforts should be raised to
ensure that the children in these primary schools are not dropped out and are enrolled at
higher levels. Special attention needs to be given  to upgrade primary schools into upper
primary and secondary levels in areas with predominantly SC and ST population.  Further in
other rural and urban areas, residential schools and enhancement of bus facilities can
provide a viable alternative to the smaller schools catering to the rural remote habitations at
Upper Primary and Secondary levels.
Category: Primary Schools
Schools With Size Of Enrolment
Upto 50 51-100 101-200 201-400 Above 400 Total
1993  No 12782 17304 13422 4859 774 49141
   %  26.01 35.21 27.31 9.89 1.58 100
2002  No 25183 16397 14280 6123 1379 63362
   %  39.74 25.88 22.54 9.66 2.18 100
2004  No 30011 13706 12143 4608 1212 61680
   %  48.66 22.22 19.69 7.47 1.96 100
Category: Upper Primary Schools
Schools With Size Of Enrolment
Upto 50 51-100 101-200 201-400 Above 400 Total
No 10 163 2001 3443 764 6381
%  0.16 2.55 31.36 53.96 11.97 100
No 158 1172 6062 6674 1044 15110
%  1 7.8 40.1 44.2 6.9 100
No 271 2445 7835 5447 669 16667
%  1.6 14.7 47 32.7 4 100
Category: Secondary Schools
Schools With Size Of Enrolment
 Upto 50 51-100 101-200 201-400 Above 400 Total
No 10 163 2001 3443 764 6381
%  0.16 2.55 31.36 53.96 11.97 100
No 135 824 3251 5194 3166 12570
%  1.07 6.56 25.86 41.32 25.19 100
No 169 962 3760 5747 3704 14342
%  1.18 6.71 26.22 40.07 25.83 100
Source: Report of VI AIES,1993 and Tables of VII All India Educational Survey, 2002 in Andhra Pradesh & Selected
Educational Statistics -2004, Director of School Education, AP, Hyderabad  63
4.3 Enrolment Ratios
At primary level, the enrolment ratio of girls is marginally above boys. This is a good
indication and reflects the high awareness of parents about advantages of elementary
schooling for girls. Rapid expansion of schooling facilities at primary level particularly
between 2000 and 2005 has facilitated this growth.
The gap in enrolment ratios at upper primary and secondary levels continue to remain but
are gradually narrowing down. However, intra female disparities between rural-urban areas
and among general population - scheduled castes and scheduled tribes are sharp.
4.3.1 Enrolment ratios at Elementary level
Enrolment ratios (percentage of children to an age group) moved up constantly up to 2000-
01. In 2000-01, the enrolment ratio at primary level  was 111% for boys and 109% for girls,
At the upper primary 1evel girls’ enrolment ratio was only 48.62% compared to 58.71% for
boys (2000-01). Rural urban divide is the sharpest  among girls at secondary stage and
higher education is a predominantly urban phenomenon. Few rural girls make it to the
secondary and higher education.
Enrolment Ratios 1956-57 to 2000-01
1956-57 2000-01
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
Primary Classes (I-V) 72.38 43.28 57.94 111.59 109.09 110.35
Upper Primary Classes (VI-VII ) 21.82 5.55 13.77 58.71 48.62 53.72
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, 2000-01, C&DSE and previous volumes.
As per sixth All India Educational survey, 1993 the gross enrolment ratio at primary level was
77 and 71 percent for total children and girls respectively. In 2002, this has increased to 95
and 96 percent respectively. At upper primary level there is substantial increase from 42 and
34.7 percent to 62 and 59 percent respectively. Enrolment and retention of girls at upper
primary and secondary levels continue to be issues of concern. 64
   Gross Enrolment Ratio
1993 2002
Total Girls Total Girls
I- V  77.20 71.40 95.00 96.00
VI- VII  42.00 34.70 62.00 59.00
In 2004-05, enrolment ratios have gone up substantially at upper primary level. 110% girls
are enrolled in primary classes (6-11 year age group) compared to109% boys. At the upper
primary level 76% girls and 82% boys (11-13 years age group) have been enrolled. At
secondary level though there is a steady increase the ratios are still below 60% with girls
enrolment ratio at 50%.
Enrolment Ratios 2004-05
Boys Girls Total
Primary Classes (I-V) 109.26 110.52 109.88
Upper Primary Classes (VI-VII ) 82.27 76.07 79.20
Secondary Classes (VIII-X  ) 57.13 50.25 53.73
As gross enrolment ratio includes an estimated 25 to 30% over age and under age children,
it would take considerable time to reach net enrolment ratio of 100 in age group 6-14 years.
4.3.2 Inter District Disparities in Enrolment Ratio of Girls
The inter-district disparities in enrolment ratios  are wide. All the telangana districts have
enrolment ratios higher than the state average (110%) at both primary and upper primary
levels. As gross enrolment ratio includes an estimated 25 to 30% over age and under age
children, it would take considerable time to reach net enrolment ratio of 100 in age group 6-
14 years.
The inter district disparities are wide. High female literacy districts (above 50%) have
universalised primary enrolments among girls. However enrolment ratios in these districts
are below the state average both at primary and upper primary levels. The child population
estimates of these districts may not be close to the actual figures.
4.4 Drop outs
In the earlier sections the progress in enrolment at all levels is discussed.  But many children
who are enrolled in the first class dropout and lapse into illiterates. In Andhra Pradesh, as in
 Supra Note 30
Supra Note 3465
several other states in the country, the majority of children who leave school without
completing the primary cycle are girls. Among girls, drop out rates are much higher among
the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes who are economically and educationally the most
disadvantaged in our population.
4.4.1 Dropout Rate at Elementary Stage
In the last four decades, dropouts at primary stage have declined substantially. The decline
is sharp between 2000-01 and 2004-05. However, the  dropouts at upper primary stage
continue to be high with more than 50% of the children enrolled in class I dropping out of the
system before completing elementary education.  
Dropout Rate at Elementary Stage in Andhra Pradesh
1970 - 71 to 2004 – 05
   Primary stage (classes I-V) Elementary stage (classes I-VII)
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
1970-71  69.34 72.53 70.65 77.8 86.91 81.59
1980-81  58.48 62.87 60.31 64.4 73.19 67.98
1990-91  52.64 57.47 54.74 61.62 69.56 65.07
2000-01  37.15 37.12 37.14 54.34 58.79 56.43
2004-05  31.77 32.14 31.95 51.96 54.46 53.17
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, AP, 2000-01 & 2004-05
The Government has implemented several schemes and projects between 1996 and 2005.
District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), and Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) are the
major programmes funded by Government of India which focused on the elementary
education. Joint UN programme, Janashala provided support in the backward mandals of
four high  literacy districts of East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna and Hyderabad. These
schemes have provided the much required inputs in terms of new schools, buildings,
equipment, TLM and the much required recurring grant in the shape of school grant and
teacher grant. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is being continued during the tenth plan period.
Midday meal programme of the state government provided the much needed nutritional
support to primary school children.  However, these programmes could not bring down the
dropouts as planned and envisioned.  Dropout rates  of girls, SCs and STs are still high
particularly at upper primary and secondary levels.66
4.4.2 Enrolment and Wastage at various levels
The enrolment ratios in the state have increased over a period of time and are above 100%
at primary level.  However the retention rates are low and out of every 100 children in Class I
only 69 reach Class V and 48 reach class VII and only 38 reach class X. These figures
suggest the enormous problem of wastage despite considerable increase in enrolment.
Dropout Rates – 2004-05
Category Primary Stage (%) Upper Primary Stage (%)  Secondary Stage (%)
ST Girls  56.94 78.37 85.11
ST Boys  51.27 72.69 81.16
SC Girls  34.4 61.65 72.59
SC Boys  32.77 56.92 68.42
All Girls  32.14 54.46 65.24
All Boys  31.77 51.96 62.30
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, 2004-05, Director of School Education, AP
The dropouts at primary stage are declining in the general category and among Scheduled
castes.  However, the dropouts among Scheduled Tribes, both, boys and girls continue to be
high with more than 50% of the children enrolled in class I dropping out of the system before
completing Class V.
33 32 32
ST Girls ST Boys  SC Girls  SC Boys  All Girls All Boys
Primary Stage Upper Primary Stage Secondary Stage 67
At upper primary stage, more than 50% of the children drop out of the system before
completing Class VII. The trend in upper primary dropouts is similar to the primary stage,
with Scheduled Tribes girls at 78% and boys at 72.6%.  The dropout rates of Scheduled
castes girls and boys are also high with 61% & 56% respectively.  
The dropouts at secondary level are more than 60% in general category and among SCs &
STs the rates are above 70 and 80 percent respectively.
4.4.3 Area- wise Dropouts of Girls
A rough measure of retention is enrolment in Classes V, VII, X and XII as percentage of
Class I enrolment at any given point of time. As shown in the following Table, among rural
girls out of 100 children enrolled in Class I, barely 57 make it to Class V, 37 to Class VII, 17
to Class X and only six to Class XII, the entry point for general and technical higher
education including teacher training, hence the perennial shortage of rural women teachers.
Area: Combined   Year : 2002
Total  100 80 60 35
Girls  100 78 56 31
100 100
80 78
Total Girls
Area: Rural   Year : 2002
Total  100 78 54 28
Girls  100 75 48 23
100 100
Total Girls
Source:  Seventh All India Education Survey, 2002
4.4.4 Inter District Variations in dropout rates, of girls at Primary & Upper Primary
The districts of Mahaboobnagar, Warangal, Medak, Nizamabad, and Adilabad have high
dropout rates at both primary and upper primary levels, even though these districts have
high enrolment ratios, at these stages of education. The districts of Kurnool and Ranga
Reddy are having both high enrolment ratios as well as high dropout rates at primary level.
Districts of Hyderabad (3.9% and 12.6%), Cuddapah (15.8% and 42%) & Chittoor (15.8%
and 31.4%) have low dropout rates at both primary and upper primary levels.  The dropout
rates at primary and upper primary stages of education in Guntur district (32 and 60.5%) and
dropout rates at upper primary stage in West Godavari, East Godavari and Krishna districts
(more than 45%) is a cause of concern as these are  socially and economically developed
Inter District Disparities in Dropout rates of Girls 2004-05
A) Primary Stage (I- V)
Districts above State Average  Districts below State Average
Sl.No. District
Sl.No. District
1 Mahabubnagar 54.90  1 Visakhapatnam  27.76
2 Medak 52.67  2 Karimnagar 25.19
3 Warangal  52.54  3 East Godavari  22.49
4 Nizamabad 48.26  4 Srikakulam 21.14
5 Nalgonda 43.16  5 Nellore  20.9
6 Kurnool  39.68  6 Vizianagaram 19.39
7 Adilabad 37.39  7 Krishna  19.24
8 Prakasam 36.49  8 Ananthapur 19.12 69
9 Ranga Reddy 32.47  9 Khammam 19.01
10 Guntur  32.26  10 West Godavari  17.63
11 Chittoor 10.46
12 Cuddapah 9.66
13 Hyderabad  4.97
State Average  32.14
State Average  32.14
B) Upper Primary Stage (I- VII)
Districts above State Average  Districts below State Average
Sl.No. District
Sl.No. District
1 Mahabubnagar 73.20  1 Vizianagaram 53.88
2 Prakasam 69.23  2 Nellore 51.62
3 Adilabad 67.58  3 Karimnagar 50.93
4 Medak 66.33  4 Visakhapatnam 49.59
5 Warangal 65.63  5 Krishna 47.97
6 Kurnool 63.67  6 Ranga Reddy 47.49
7 Nalgonda 62.52  7 Srikakulam 45.89
8 Guntur 60.50  8 West Godavari 45.39
9 Nizamabad 58.54  9 East Godavari 45.36
10 Khammam 57.61  10 Cuddapah 45.23
11 Ananthapur 42.07
12 Chittoor 34.66
13 Hyderabad 7.42
State Average  54.46
State Average  54.46
        Source: Selected Educational Statistics, 2004-05, Director of School Education, AP
The retention rates of girls at both primary and upper primary levels are fairly good in all
Rayalaseema districts except Kurnool. Similarly, all coastal districts barring Guntur,
Prakasham and Vizianagaram show higher retention rates.
4.4.5 Dropout rates among SC girls at primary and upper primary levels.
The state average dropout rate of SC girls is 34.4% at primary level (Table). However the
dropout rates of SC girls exceed 50% in the districts of Medak (56.21%), Mahaboobnagar
(55.83%), Warangal (53%) and Nizamabad (51.48%) districts. 70
The retention rates of SC girls at primary level are significantly higher in districts of Chittoor
(90.38%) and Srikakulam (87.4%), while it is fairly high in the districts ranging from 80.32%
in Nellore to 85.06% in Vizianagaram.
The state average dropout rate of SC girls is 61.65% at the upper primary level. The dropout
rate is less than 50 % only in the five districts of Anantapur, Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam,
Chittoor and Hyderabad ranging from 48.59% in Anantapur to 25.62% in Hyderabad which
indicate moderate retention rate of SC girls in these districts at upper primary level.
4.4.6 Dropout rates among ST girls at primary and upper primary levels.
Mahabubnagar (76.8%), Medak (74.32), Nizamabad (74.11), Warangal (72.52) and
Nalgonda (71.12) have high dropout rates of ST girls at Primary level even though State
average dropout rate is 56.94. The retention rates of ST girls at primary level is notably high
in the Districts of Vizianagaram, Cuddappah, Ananthapur and Hyderabad, ranging from
79.88% in Vizianagaram to 70.22 in Hyderabad.
At the upper primary level the State Average drop out rate of ST girls is 78.37 and the drop
out rate is more than 70% in most of the district  except Khammam, Chittoor, Cuddappah,
West Godavari, East Godavari, Ananthapur and Hyderabad  ranging from 68.45 in
Khammam to 26.57 in Hyderabad. The retention rate is noteworthy only in Hyderabad
District (73.43).  71
Chapter- V
Girl Child Labor- Forced Illiterates
 Forms of Child Labor
 Factors responsible for Child Labor
 Magnitude of Child Labour
 International efforts
 National Interventions
 State Interventions curbing Child Labour 72
5.1 Child Labour
The practice of child labour is a prominent feature in India. It is a major hurdle in the
development of the child at the micro level and development of the country at the macro
level. "Child labor" is, generally speaking, children made to work hard at their early ages of
growth that harms them or exploits them in some way (physically, mentally, morally, or by
blocking access to education).
There is no universally accepted definition of "child labor". Varying definitions of the term are
used by international organizations, non-governmental organizations, trade unions and other
interest groups. The child labour Act in India does not define what child labour is. It just gives
the definition of a child and the lists of activities prohibiting appointment of child labour in
them. Writers and speakers don’t always specify what definition they are using, and that
often leads to confusion
. In general we can explain child labour as a practice which forces
child to engage in activities which include manual labor or work for wages which recedes
their development and harm their growth. It is a practice which deprives them of childhood
and subjects them to unusual exploitative way of life.
It deprives them of education and human development. Right to education is a universal
right and every child should have access to it. The spread of formal education among
children may prevent the occurrence of child labour and potential child labourers from
accepting the practice.
Working children are the objects of extreme exploitation in terms of toiling for long hours for
minimal pay. Their work conditions are especially severe, often not providing the stimulation
for proper physical and mental development. Many of these children endure lives of pure
deprivation. There must be an economic change in the condition of a struggling family to free
a child from the responsibility of working. Family subsidies can help provide this support
“CHILD LABOR: ISSUES, CAUSES AND INTERVENTIONS”; Faraaz Siddiqi, Harry Anthony Patrinos;
5. Girl Child Labour - Forced Illiterates 73
5.2 Forms of Child Labour
Child labour can be classified into main workers and marginal workers. In India out of the
12.66 million working children in 2001 about 5.77 million children were classified as main
workers and rest 6.88 million children ere as marginal workers
. Most of the workers were
engaged in agricultural activities as wage labourers or cultivators. Manufacturing,
processing, servicing and repairs in the household  industries engaged 3% child workers,
while 3% child workers were engaged in factory work and the other 15% working children
were engaged in service sector, mostly as domestic workers, and in
small trade activities
.  Working children are usually classified in terms of work situations in
domestic work, non-domestic and non-monetary work,  bonded labour work, wage work in
hazardous and non-hazardous occupations and commercial sexual exploitation work. Each
work situation has deep-rooted consequences on their human rights, healthcare and future
economic production processes. Some of the hazardous processes and occupations, where
child labourers are found in large numbers are:
 Agriculture hybrid cotton seed production
 Agricultural allied processes
 Bidi making, making thread from silk cocoon Mining  Mica and slate Manufacturing
 carpet weaving, silk and other cotton weaving,
 leather, electric bulb making,
 glass and bangle making ,
 sports especially ball stitching,
 Gem and diamond cutting and polishing, lock making
 Construction- manual labour, brick making and chipping, stone breaking
 “Review of Child Labour, Education and Poverty Agenda, India Country Report, 2006”; ICCLE; Washington
Child Labor in India
1971 1981 1991 2001
(in Millions)
Source: Census of India of relevant years74
 Service industries domestic services, transport and garages, hotels and restaurants,
sexual abuse and exploitation
5.3 Factors responsible
Children work for a variety of reasons the most pressing being poverty. Children work to
ensure the survival of their family and themselves. Though children are not well paid, they
still serve as major contributors to family income.
 Children are often prompted to work by
their parents owing to their poor economic positions. Education deprivation among the
parents and children, food deficit at home, unemployment status of any family member for
more than 6 months and families with no or less land are the
 contributing factors for child labour
. Lack of proper education system is also an important
factor promoting child labour.
5.4 Highest Concentration of Child Labour
In India 11.2 million working children were recorded by the 1991 census of India which figure
has risen to 12.66 million in the 2001 census.
Child Labour Population, 1991-2001
Child Workers
Child Workers
%  Workers
%  Workers
Andhra Pradesh 1661940 1363339 9.98 7.7 -2.28
Arunachal Pradesh 12,395 18482 5.65 6.06 0.41
Assam 327598 351416 5.46 5.07 -0.39
Bihar 942,245 1117500 3.99 4.68 0.69
Chattisgarh  364572  6.96 6.96
Delhi 27351 41899 1.27 1.35 0.08
Goa 4656 4138 1.95 1.82 -0.13
Gujarat 523585 485530 5.26 4.28 -0.98
Haryana 109,691 253491 2.55 4.78 2.23
Himachal Pradesh 56438 107774 4.55 8.14 3.59
Jammu & Kashmir  175630  6.62 6.62
Jharkhand  407200  5.47 5.47
Karnataka 976247 822665 8.81 6.91 -1.90
Kerela 34800 26156 0.58 0.47 -0.11
Madhya Pradesh 1352563 1065259 8.08 6.71 -1.37
Maharastra 1068418 764075 5.73 3.54 -2.19
Orissa 452394 377594 5.87 4.37 -1.50
Punjab 142,868 177268 3.04 3.23 0.19
 Supra note 2
Supra Note 675
Rajasthan 774199 1262570 6.46 8.25 1.79
Sikkim 5598 16457 5.18 12.04 6.86
Tamilnadu 578,889 418801 4.83 3.61 -1.22
Tripura 16478 21756 2.29 2.79 0.50
Uttar Pradesh 1410086 1927997 3.81 4.04 0.23
Uttranchal  70183  3.24 3.24
West Bengal 711691 857087 4.16 4.5 0.34
INDIA  11285349 12666377 5.37 5 -0.37
Source: Census of India, 1991 and 2001
The above table reveals the child labour population in India. Most of the children fall between
the age group of 5-14 years. Andhra Pradesh is one of the States with largest child labour.
The state of Andhra Pradesh state witnessed synergy of efforts between government, ILO,
trade unions and NGOs during 1991-2001 in scaling up education initiatives for out-of-school
children, but the strategy was not effective enough as the children dropped-out without
completing the full cycle of elementary education and joined back in the workforce
. The
2001 census reported marginal decline in the magnitude of child labour during 1991-2001,
but it still recorded the second highest magnitude  of child workers after Uttar Pradesh. A
significant proportion of children who have dropped out from schools without completing full
cycle of elementary education were from extreme poverty families and preferred children to
work for family sustenance.
Among the larger states the proportion of working children in the age group of 5-14 years
was high in Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Karnataka. This increase was
inspite of tremendous efforts by government, United Nations and other international
agencies and NGOs for universalizing primary and elementary education and removing
children from work through education and other rehabilitative interventions. The results
depict that only education interventions without integrating poverty alleviation programmes in
the policy may not yield desired results of reducing child labour
5.5 Interventions curbing child labour:
There have been lot of initiatives existing at national and state level to prohibit child labour.
 Ibid p-12
 Ibid 76
5.5.1 National Interventions
India has all along followed a proactive policy in the matter of tackling the problem of child
labor. India has always stood for constitutional, statutory and development measures
required to eliminate child labor. The Indian Constitution has consciously incorporated
provisions to secure compulsory universal elementary education as well as labor protection
for children. Labor Commissions in India have gone  into the problems of child labor and
have made extensive recommendations.
In India, the post-independence era has seen an unequivocal commitment of the
government to the cause of children through constitutional provisions, legislation, policies
and programs. The Constitution of India in Article  39 of the Directive Principles of State
Policy pledges that "the State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing ... that the
health and strength of workers, men and women, and  the tender age of children are not
abused, and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited
to their age or strength, that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a
healthy manner, and in conditions of freedom and dignity, and that childhood and youth are
protected against exploitation, and against moral and material abandonment."
As a follow-up of this commitment, and being a party to the UN Declaration on the Rights of
the Child 1959, India adopted the National Policy on Children in 1974. The policy reaffirmed
the constitutional provisions and stated that "it shall be the policy of the State to provide
adequate services to children, both before and after birth and through the period of growth to
ensure their full physical, mental and social development. The State shall progressively
increase the scope of such services so that within  a reasonable time all children in the
country enjoy optimum conditions for their balanced growth."
India has also ratified on December 2, 1992, the Convention on the Rights of the Child which
came into force in 1990. This ratification implies that India will ensure wide awareness about
issues relating to children among government agencies, implementing agencies, the media,
the judiciary, the public and children themselves. The Government's endeavor is to meet the
oals of the Convention and to amend all legislation, policies and schemes to meet the
standards set in the Convention.
India is also a signatory to the World Declaration  on the Survival, Protection and
Development of Children. In pursuance of the commitment made at the World Summit, the
Department of Women and Child Development under the Ministry of Human Resource 77
Development has formulated a National Plan of Action for Children. Most of the
recommendations of the World Summit Action Plan are reflected in India's National Plan of
India's first act on the subject of Child labour was the enactment of the Children (Pledging of
Labor) Act of February 1933. This was followed by the Employment of Children Act in 1938.
Subsequently, twelve additional legislations were passed that progressively extended legal
protection to children. Provisions relating to child labor under various enactments such as
the Factories Act, the Mines Act, the Plantation Labor Act etc. have concentrated on aspects
such as reducing working hours, increasing minimum wage and prohibiting employment of
children in occupations and processes detrimental to their health and development.
The Child Labor (Prohibition & Regulation) Act 1986
The Act as the name suggests prohibits and regulates child labour in the country but does
not abolish. The Act in particular:
 bans the employment of children, i.e. those who have not completed their 14th year,
in specified occupations and processes
 lays down a procedure to make additions to the schedule of banned occupations or
 regulates the working conditions of children in occupations where they are not
prohibited from working;
 lays down penalties for employment of children in violation of the provisions of this
Act,, and other Acts which forbid the employment of children;
 brings uniformity in the definition of the "Child" in related laws.
Ironically this Act does not define Child labour but gives the definition of a child.
National Policy on Child Labour
The Government of India adopted a National Child Labor policy in 1987, in accordance with
the constitutional provisions and various legislation on child labor. The idea of adopting a
separate policy on child labor was not only to place the issue on the nation's agenda, but
also to formulate a specific program of action to initiate the process of progressive
elimination of child labor. The policy consists of three complementary measures:
 Legal action plan: This policy envisages strict enforcement of the provisions of the
Child Labor (Prohibition & Regulation) Act, 1986 and other child-related legislation.  78
 Focus on general development programs benefiting children wherever possible: The
policy envisages the development of an extensive system of non-formal education for
working children withdrawn from work and increasing the provision for employment
and income generating schemes meant for their parents. A special cell - Child Labour
Cell - was constituted to encourage voluntary organizations to take up activities like
non-formal education,- vocational training, provisions of health care, nutrition and
education for working children.
 Area specific projects: To focus on areas known to have high concentration of child
labour and to adopt a project approach for identification, withdrawal and rehabilitation
of working children
National Authority for the Elimination of Child Labour (NAECL)
India has established the NAECL  under the Chairmanship of the Labor Minister,
Government of India. The NAECL, comprising representatives from the Central Ministries,
meets the need for an umbrella organization to coordinate the efforts of the different arms of
the Government for the progressive elimination of child labor.
Central Advisory Board on Child Labor
The Central Advisory Board on Child Labor was constituted on March 4, 1981. The following
are the terms of reference of the Board:
 Review the implementation of the existing legislation administered by the Central
 Suggest legislative measures as well as welfare measures for the welfare of working
 Review the progress of welfare measures for working children.
 Recommend the industries and areas where there must be a progressive elimination
of child labor.
Child Labor Technical Advisory Committee:
Under Section 5 of the Child Labor (P&R) Act 1986, the Government of India is empowered
to constitute a Child Labor Technical Advisory Committee for the purpose of addition of
occupation and processes in the Schedule to the Act. The Committee consists of a
Chairman and members not exceeding ten. 79
National Child Labor Projects (NCLP)
Under the action plan of the National Policy on Child Labor, there have been National Child
Labor Projects (NCLP) set up in different areas to  rehabilitate child labor. A major activity
undertaken under the NCLP is the establishment of special schools to provide non-formal
education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition etc. to children withdrawn from
employment. Under the project based action plan of the policy, 12 NCLPs were started in the
States of Andhra Pradesh (Jaggampet and Markapur),  Bihar (Garwah), Madhya Pradesh
(Mandsaur), Maharashtra (Thane), Orissa (Sambalpur), Rajasthan (Jaipur), Tamil Nadu
(Sivakasi) and Uttar Pradesh (Varanasi-Mirzapur-Bhadohi,, Moradabad, Aligarh and
5.5.2 Andhra Pradesh Efforts towards Curbing Child Labour
The Government of Andhra Pradesh realizing the magnitude of child labour problem passed
a Legislative assembly resolution condemning child labour and reaffirming commitment to
eliminate child labour by 2005.
The government has worked towards convergence by involving the education department,
labour department, social welfare department, BC welfare department, ITDA/ST welfare
department, Minority welfare department, Women and  Child welfare department, Velugu,
NCLP, SHG’s to handle the problem of child labour. Programs were devised to sensitize the
community and to advocate protection of child rights making school as the right place for all
children as a social norm.
The government of Andhra Pradesh has taken several innovative measures for elimination
of child labour in the State. The subject of child labour is transferred from Labor department
to school education department and officers of education department are appointed as
inspectors for the purpose of implementation of child labour Acts.
Measures like relaxation of minimum attendance criterion, exemption of examination fee and
attendance exemption fee for VII and X Public Exams and VI, VII and IX common exams
have facilitated easy entry for non starters and dropouts. Prohibition of Corporal Punishment
in schools has resulted in making the school environment conducive for these children.
The centralized scheme of SSA extends support to the state through various interventions to
release child from work and mainstream the. NRBS, PBC and campaign for the relaease of
child labour are some of the initiatives in this direction. Every year before the reopening of
schools the state government is taking up a massive community mobilizing program to
release the child labour employed in the factories, dhabhas, hotels. These Employers are 80
fined and the money collected is deposited in a vidya nidhi and used for rehabilitation of the
children employed as child labour.  
The government of Andhra Pradesh worked out a strategy towards bringing back to school
out of school children. It initially focused on the following issues to work out the
strategy:Prioritizing and focusing on areas of high number of out of school children.
 Regulation of child labour- Levy of fine up to Rs. 20,000  from employers.
 Care for the children- Immediate rehabilitation.
 Coordinated efforts- welfare and enforcement departments.
 Admission in to hostels, residential schools, bridge courses.
 Involving Ngo’s wherever possible.
Strategies for bringing out of school
children/ child labour into schools:
Availability of database for out of school
children/ child labour.
 Conduct of intensive community
mobilization programs.
 Direct enrolment of children in 5-8
years in to regular schools.
 Running of Bridge courses
 Enrolling all out of school children in
bridge courses.
 Running of NRBC for 6-10 months in
school premises.
 Running of RBC camp for 6-10
 Unit cost for running of NRBC Rs.
1200/- per child per annum.
 Unit cost for running of RBC Rs.
4800/- per child per annum.
 Mainstreaming all out of school
children in regular schools from
bridge courses.
Case study of Velpur
The Velpur mandal in Nizamabad district has been declared as 100% child labour free mandal in 2001, and
has achieved 100% enrolment thanks to the efforts of DPEP and NCLP. The drive for enrolment started in
June 2001. The team stayed in the mandal for 69 days and devised a working plan to eliminate child labour
there. The team followed mass awareness programs spreading their cause. It held frequent meetings with
parents, village head and teachers, sensitizing them about the problem of child labour. It followed an
individual child wise action plan and they used to  visit the villages in the early mornings and late nights to
counsel the children, parents, employers. VDC passed resolutions and oaths taken by village elders to
eliminate child labour. The out of school children were adopted by VDC and village elders and were sent to
school. The child employers were warned and frequent raids were conducted. Employers allowing children to
go to school were felicitated. The MoU’s were entered into with sarpanchs of gram sabha to involve their
participation which has resulted in the elimination of child labour in the mandal.
MV Foundation
MV Foundation in Andhra Pradesh made efforts to bring
over 15,000  out of school children in 300 villages of
Rangareddy district to main stream into schools.  The
main thrust of this program is to reach out to the children
who are either in bonded labor or used by their parents
in helping out with the family; children who  had hitherto
no childhood and had to work for their food and board.
Through active recruiting of young teenagers and school
teachers in the government schools around the area, the
program gathered enough volunteers who worked in
different villages and convinced parents and caretakers
through one-on-one meetings and street plays to release
the children to go to school The foundation started the
concept of bridge courses to facilitate these kids to join
the mainstream schooling. The program in this direction
operates special summer camps  in different parts of the
district. Children are grouped and housed, fed and
educated according to their age and abilities. The camps
prepared them to pass a government-qualifying exam for
entry into regular government run schools. As no
privately run school can absorb all the students, the
foundation has worked successfully with the Andhra
Pradesh government to beef up the government run
schools by training and supplying additional teachers.
Over the last seventeen years over 15,000 children in
300 villages have benefited from the M.V.F program  of
withdrawing children from work and enrolling them in
schools. Over the years the program has been supported
by the Government of India, CRY, IPEC-ILO, UNICEF,
and HIVOS among others.81
The government of Andhra Pradesh followed a strict implementation of the Child Labour Act:
 It released hardcore child labour from employers
 Booked cases against employers and collected penalty amounts which was used
towards the creation of Child labour welfare fund.
 It worked towards the rehabilitation of child labour by joining them in schools and bridge
Child and Police (CAP)
Child And Police (CAP) is a DRFHSD programme of Dr. Reddys lab conducted in partnership with the police. The
CAP project is a community-based program that aims to rehabilitate children-at-risk with the support of the state
police and education departments. Members of the CAP conduct street-by-street surveys to identify and
rehabilitate economically disadvantaged children. Families are then convinced to send their children to the
Foundation’s bridge school where they are put through child-friendly syllabi. 4-8 months later, depending on the
age and prior literacy level, they are integrated into the mainstream public education system.
 During 1998, the CAP Project was initiated with 300 former child workers.
 In 2003-04, CAP commissioned residential and non-residential bridge schools, benefiting over 3000 children.
 The programme now covers over 7000 children removed from working conditions, 130 urban poor
communities, 115 schools, 600 teachers, and over 25,000 students.
 The programme directly mobilized and mainstreamed  6234 children - 62% girls - through a bridge school
leading to a formal government school.
 The project reaches out to over 20,000 children in  120 government schools and 150 slum communities in
Hyderabad and Urban Ranga Reddy districts with a quality education programme.
In addition to the efforts of the government of Andhra Pradesh,915 (471 RBCs and 444
NRBCs) bridge course centers are functioning in the 23 districts under NCLP with an
enrolment of 51,094 out of school children including 27,140 girls for the purpose of
mainstreaming them in schools.
Besides, NCLP identified 2,24,222 children in employed in hazardous occupations in the
state and made efforts to main stream them through 1708 NCLP centers(see table below).
Children Employed in Hazardous Occupations
No. of
S. No. District
No. of
1 Mahabubnagar 82313  13 Nellore  3912
2 Guntur  25521  14 Ranga Reddy 3722
3 Prakasam 19858  15 East Godavari  3645
4 Vizianagaram 13262  16 Khammam 3011
5 Kurnool  12150  17 Hyderabad  2363
6 Chittoor 9126  18 Medak 2354
7 West Godavari  8261  19 Visakhapatnam  2282
8 Cuddapah 6731  20 Adilabad 1699
9 Krishna  6628  21 Karimnagar 1520
10 Warangal  4810  22 Srikakulam 1361
11 Nalgonda 4500  23 Ananthapur 993
12 Nizamabad 4200
Child Labor covered through NCLP centers
S.No. District
Children Employed
in Hazardous
No. of
No. of
children main
1 Srikakulam 1361 31 1376 5746
2 Vizianagaram 13262 239 11900 10359
3 Visakhapatnam  2282 70 3500 13764
4 East Godavari  3645 26 3958 2300
5 West Godavari  8261 154 8613 6200
6 Krishna  6628 68 3400 6
7 Guntur  25521 30 7300 4646
8 Prakasam 19858 20 12864 6778
9 Nellore  3912 30 4738 3238
10 Chittoor 9126 260 12909 6883
11 Cuddapah 6731 77 9951 6520
12 Ananthapur 993 14 14562 11210
13 Kurnool  12150 93 29372 16679
14 Mahabubnagar 82313 40 9517 4957
15 Ranga Reddy 3722 60 37840 24091
16 Hyderabad  2363 103 175086 88550
17 Medak 2354 50 7793 3602
18 Nizamabad 4200 34 8602 4662
19 Adilabad 1699 60 3174 1213
20 Karimnagar 1520 50 6481 4024
21 Warangal  4810 60 3312 9215
22 Khammam 3011 116 9730 4644
23 Nalgonda 4500 23 8850 3760
 Total  224222 1708 394828 243047 83
Chapter- VI
 Availability of teachers
 Teacher pupil ratio
 Instructional facilities/ class rooms
 Other Physical Amenities for girls
 Incentives & Concessions
 Enhancing the achievements – learning of the children
6.1 Quality - The Invisible Component in Education
Efforts for providing elementary education since independence have been steady and
gaining momentum particularly after 1986. The National Policy on Education 1986, reiterated
the need for Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) and several national and state
level programmes have been launched to augment the facilities at elementary level. Since
then, though there is an increased presence of private players, elementary education in the
state is still dominated by government schools. Under the Operation Blackboard project in
early 90’s, the minimum requirement for a primary school was specified for the first time in
the country. However, very often establishing a school meant no more than posting a teacher
to work in the school.
The National Educational Policy of 1986 took specific note of the conditions related to basic
facilities and other support systems in schools which will provide basic education of
comparable quality.  These include four basic dimensions that relate to the learning
environment and learning from the school namely (i)teachers in primary schools, (ii)school
building and other physical facilities, (iii)teaching-learning material and (iv)learner
achievements. In reality, existence of these facilities need not necessary mean that children
are learning, it is also dependent on many other factors outside the purview of government
like supportive family atmosphere, learning capacity of the child etc which will also contribute
to the scope of learning.
The education policies, can flower only through the teachers whose actions shape the
learning environment in the institutions, thereby influencing the teaching –learning processes
and the learning outcomes. To facilitate the above, two pronged approach has been initiated,
one in the formal and the other in the non formal sector to reach the never unenrolled and
dropouts. Under the Operation Black Board (1988 - 1994) project, a tremendous impetus
was endowed by providing a second teacher preferably a female teacher in all the single
teacher primary schools. There has been a substantial increase in the number of teachers
during the last one and half decade.  
6. Quality85
6.2 Teachers in Schools
The number of teachers in primary schools increased from 77025 in 1956 to 166935 in 2004.
The years between 1988 and 1994 are the years of rapid expansion, wherein all single
teacher primary schools were supported with provision of second teacher under the centrally
sponsored scheme of OBB. The growth in teachers at primary level in a span of about thirty
five years since 1956 to 1990 is 1.4 times where as the growth in number of teachers in the
last decade and half was 1.5 times. In upper primary level there is a tremendous growth in
schools and teachers and the increase between 1956 and 1990 was 9.5 times and thereafter
2.5 times. In the secondary level also there is increase in number of teachers, with a sharp
increase of 4.6 times and 1.9 times respectively.
Number of Teachers in Primary Schools - 1956-57 to 2004-05
Primary Upper Primary Secondary
Increase by
no. of times
Increase by
no. of times
Increase by
no. of times
1956-57 77025  4421  16166
1990-91 110857 1.4 41837 9.5 74751 4.6
2004-05 166935 1.5 103985 2.5 140399 1.9
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, Director of School Education, 2000-01 and 2004-05
6.2.1 Availability of Teachers in Schools
As stated earlier, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of schools during the
last decade and half. By 2002, the number of schools was increased by 1.2 times.
Concurrently there was an increase in the number of teachers also.
In 1993, maximum primary schools were managed by local bodies (86%) at both rural and
urban areas followed by government schools (7.09%). The private aided schools (4.9%) and
private unaided schools (3.8%) were minimal. Similarly, in 1993, maximum number of
schools in the rural schools (45%) and the urban schools (23%) reported to have two
teachers. 3% of the rural schools and 0.74% of the  urban schools reported to have no
teachers and nearly 3% of the rural schools and 22% of the urban schools have more than
five teachers.
Though, even now, maximum schools are managed by local bodies (81.4%), followed by
government schools (8.9%), there was an increase in private unaided schools (5.8%)
compared to private aided schools (3.7%). Likewise, in the rural areas maximum number of
schools (44.38%) reported to have two teachers followed by one teacher schools (19.58%). 86
The percentage of schools without teachers was reduced to 0.92% while schools with more
than five teachers were increased to 6% from 3% in 1993.
Contrary to this, in the urban areas there is an increase in the percentage of schools with
more than five teachers from 22% in 1993 to 37.29%. In the urban schools, 10% increase is
reported in the number of schools (51%) having five or more than five teachers in position.
Meanwhile, the schools with out even one teacher have also increased to 1.49% from 0.74%
in 1993.
Area- wise Schools with number of teachers in position in 1993 & 2002
Number & percentage of schools with teachers in position
Area Year
0 1 2 2 & more Total
No  1341 15932 19888 7251 44412
%  3.02 35.87 44.78 16.33 100
No  35 523 1078 3093 4729
%  0.74 11.06 22.8 65.4 100
No  494 10548 23912 18929 53882
%  0.92 19.58 44.38 35.13 100
No  108 575 1325 5237 7245
%  1.49 7.94 18.29 72.28 100
Source: Report of VI AIES,1993 and Tables of VII All India Educational Survey, 2002 in Andhra Pradesh
6.2.2 Gender Composition of teachers
The state policy of reserving 33
/3 % of vacancies for women has brought out a phenomenal
change in the gender composition of teachers. The percentage of female teachers at primary
level increased from 17 % in 1956 to 35% in 2000 and further to 45% in 2004. Women
teachers constitute more than 40% at upper primary and secondary levels also.  
Percentage of Female Teachers to Total Teachers 1956-57 to 2000-01
Year Primary Schools Upper Primary Schools High Schools
1956-57 17.58 22.91 13.65
1990-91 28.54 32.43 30.76
2000-01 35.31 43.32 43.01
2004-05 45.02 41.43 40.10
       Source: Selected Educational Statistics, Director of School Education, 2000-01 and 2004-05
6.2.3 Female Teachers at different stages of education in different areas
From 1993 to 2002, the composition of female teachers in the service has increased
tremendously at all stage of education. In the rural areas, primary (34.11%) and upper
primary schools (34.34%) have reported 10% increase in female teachers services while at 87
the secondary school level it has increased nearly  15% (15.85% to 29.19%). In the urban
areas, though the increase has not been that significant, women constitute 68% of the total
urban teachers at primary level and more than 55% both at upper primary and secondary
However, the noticeable factor is the huge gap between the rural and urban areas in its
percentage share of female teachers. In total, urban areas have nearly two times more
female teachers than rural areas in 2002.  In 1993, rural urban gap in female teachers in the
secondary levels is nearly four times, upper primary level is nearly two times, primary level is
three times. By 2002, substantial number of female  teachers has been added to the rural
areas and in the primary and secondary levels the gap has been reduced to two times.
Percentage share of Female Teachers to Total Teachers - 1993 & 2002
Primary Upper Primary  Secondary  Total
1993 2002 1993 2002 1993 2002 1993 2002
Rural  24.65 34.11 23.4 34.34 15.85 29.19 21.58 32.80
Urban  60.95 67.77 56.91 59.25 55.91 57.55 54.61 61.22
Total  31.38 41.81 36.76 41.03 34.87 40.67 33.39 41.24
Source: Report of VI AIES, 1993 and Tables of VII All India Educational Survey, 2002 in Andhra Pradesh
6.2.4 Female teachers in position in different Types of Schools
Female teachers have been allocated to most schools especially in government (education
dept), Mandal Parishad and Zilla Parishad Schools in the state. Even after all the efforts, it is
quite interesting to note that 51 % of the total primary schools do not have female teachers.
28% of the schools have one female teacher in the school. In the case of upper primary
schools, 25% schools do not have female teacher and 24% have only one female teacher. In
case of high schools 16% of the schools have no female teachers and 23 % have one
female teacher. This analysis is based on the data  from 2003 computerised employee
database maintained by the education department
Schools with female teachers in position – 2003
Government, Mandal Parishad, Zilla Parishad Schools
Type of School 0 1 2 & more Total
Primary  No  24413 13561 9870 47844
%  51.03 28.34 20.63 100
Upper Primary  No  2578 2487 5070 10135
%  25.44 24.54 50.02 100
No  1174 1641 4397 7212
High Schools
%  16.28 22.75 60.97 100
Source: Computerised Employee Database, 2003, Education Department, AP 88
6.2.5 Women in Administrative Posts in Department of Education
Sensitiveness to women’s issue is easier to be identified and rectified if women are involved
in the decision making.  It is clear from the table given below that role of women in most of
the decision making levels in the department of education is limited. The position of District
Education Officer which is the key post at the district level has hardly any woman in position.
Similar is the position of availability of Mandal Education Officer and Head Mistress at
primary and secondary school levels.
Representation of women in Administrative posts at various levels in the Education Department – 2003
Post Total Female % of Female
District Educational Officer / Deputy
30 3 0.1
Deputy Educational Officer  84 18 21.43
Mandal Education Officer  892 22 2.47
Head Master, Primary Schools*  7547 900 11.92
Head Master, High Schools*  4018 673 16.75
* Data consists of teachers in Government, Mandal Parishad and Zilla Parishad Schools only and the data source is
Computerised Employee Data base, 2003 of Education Department, AP
6.3 Teacher-Pupil Ratios
The state is committed to provide teachers at a ratio of 1:45. The transparent recruitment
policy and the regularity in which teachers are recruited has facilitated in recruitment of
teachers as per the growing requirement. Apart from the posts sanctioned under OBB by
GOI, Government of Andhra Pradesh has sanctioned nearly 30,000 posts in the last decade.
Though, the teacher pupil ratios in total is favourable at the primary level, the size of villages
and habitations in A.P. are very small and many schools in the state are so small that it is
difficult to get a minimum enrolment of 50 students in classes I to V. This leads to inevitable
multi grade teaching at the primary level reducing  the scope for individual attention and
quality instruction. This is one of the major hurdles which the state should address to
increase the quality of education.  89
Over the last thirty five years, though the teacher pupil ratio has varied slightly here and
there, but the ratio is always around 30. This was initially due to low enrolment, then due to
increase in the number of teachers and enrolment and later due to decrease in enrolment.
Teacher Pupil Ratios from 1956-57 to 2004-05
Year Primary Schools Upper Primary Schools High Schools
1956-57  31 34 23
1990-91  53 47 37
2004-05  33 31 33
          Source: Selected Educational Statistics, Director of School Education, 2000-01 and 2004-05
6.3.1 Teacher-Pupil Ratios in different Management Schools
Compared to 1993 where the teacher pupil ratio was quite unfavourable in local bodies and
private aided schools, but by 2002 a favourable or optimum teacher-pupil ratio was attained
in all management schools.
6.3.2 Inter-district Comparison of Teacher Pupil Ratio at the Primary & Upper
Primary School Level in 2002 -03
For the primary schools the minimum Teacher Pupil Ratio (TPR) recommended is 1: 45. In
Andhra Pradesh, the state average in 2004 -05 is 33 for primary schools and 30 for upper
primary schools.
Average Teacher Pupil Ratio in different types of schools in 2002-03
Type of school Area Teacher Pupil Ratio
Rural 33
Urban 36
Total 33
Rural 31
Upper primary  Urban 28
Total 30
All districts have achieved a TP ratio of below forty five, except rural Kurnool. Thirteen
districts (50%) in the state have better than the state average TPR of thirty three. But its
range varies from twenty four in Nellore to forty seven in Kurnool which is almost double.
For the primary schools in the rural areas, the teacher pupil ratio for the state is thirty three
and thirteen districts reported the average TP ratio of thirty three or less. However, the ratio
VII AISES, 200290
varies from twenty three in Nellore to forty nine in Kurnool which is double. In the urban
scenario, average ratio is thirty six for the state with the range of twenty five in Warangal to
forty five in Viskhapatanam. Here, ten districts have TP ratio better than the state average of
In the Upper Primary schools in the state, the average TP ratio is reported as thirty. Sixteen
districts reports below the state average and the range starts from twenty one in Chittoor to
forty one in Kurnool. In the rural upper primary schools, the state average is reported as
thirty one and fifteen districts have a favorable TP ratio of better to state average. In the
urban upper primary schools, the average TPR at the state level is twenty eight and the
range varies from nineteen in Chittoor to thirty nine in Prakasam. Twelve districts have
reported an urban TP ratio better than state average of twenty eight.
Districts with Better & Poor TPR in Rural & Urban Areas in different types of schools - 2002-03
Better TP Ratio Poor TP Ratio
Types of
School  District Ratio District Ratio
Ranga Reddy
 Source: Tables of VII AISES, 2002
 (Districts with TPR above 1:40 are indicated) 91
Though, no direct relation can be established between female literacy level and teacher pupil
ratio, it is quite worthy to notice that the districts of Nellore, Chittoor, Cuddaph and Krishna
which shows remarkable TPR at the primary school level, also have female literacy level
above the state average. Similarly, all districts which have reported female literacy better
than the state average in the urban areas also have a TPR below the state average.
6.4 Instructional Facilities/ Class Rooms
The infrastructure of the school and other facilities like playground, availability of sports and
teaching materials etc are also factors which attract and retain the children at school and
lead to overall qualitative development. The classrooms and instructional facilities available
in the school is an indicator of the quality of the education system. Over the decade from
1993 to 2002, the changes in the rural and urban areas regarding the availability of
classrooms are quite interesting. The percentage of schools without any instructional
facilities or class room in rural areas has increased from 6.58% to 8.6% and has also
increased in urban areas from 2.78% to 4.17%.
Availability of Classroom Facilities in Rural & Urban Primary schools 1993 & 2002
Number & percentage of schools with Classrooms
Year Area
2 & More
classrooms  Total
No 2924 23530 12575 5383 44412
%  6.58 52.98 28.32 12.12 100
No 131 812 1069 2717 4729
%  2.78 17.17 22.6 57.45 100
No 3055 24342 13644 8100 49141
% 6.21 49.54 27.77 16.48 100
No 4674 19828 13707 15674 53883
%  8.67 36.8 25.44 29.09 100
No 302 817 879 5247 7245
%  4.17 11.28 12.13 72.43 100
No 4976 20645 14586 20921 61128
% 8.14 33.77 23.86 34.22 100
In 1993, maximum number of schools in rural areas has one room (53%) followed by two
rooms (28%). In 2002, though the one room (37%) and two room schools (25.4%) are
leading major increase has come in three room schools (6 % to 16%). The percentage of
schools having more than five rooms has also increased from 1.35% to 5.31%. In the urban
 Report of VI AIES,1993 and Tables of VII AISES,2002 92
areas, in 1993, 22.6% schools had two rooms for instruction facilities and were closely
followed by five room schools (20%) and more than five room schools (19%). By 2002, the
number of two room schools and five room schools has declined to 12.13% and 7.07%.
More remarkable the percentage of schools having more than five rooms has increased from
18.93 to 46.49%.
In general even though, the problem of schools having no classrooms still persist, the
percentage of schools having two or more rooms has more than doubled during this period
which is a noteworthy effort of the government.
6.5 Gender Sensitivity in Schools
One of the reasons for not sending young girls to schools by the parents is the apprehension
about the safety and security of them. This includes long distance, sanitation facilities, the
absence of female teachers in the school etc. Provision of sanitary facilities in the school has
been identified as one factor to increase the girl’s enrolment and funds for construction of
sanitation facilities in schools comes through different schemes of other departments like
Rural Development, Panchayat Raj and Irrigation etc.
6.5.1 Sanitation Facilities for girls in schools
At the primary stage level, between 1993 and 2002, the sanitation facilities, in general and
for girls in specific, have increased only marginally from 7.3% and 5% to 17.02% and
11.22% respectively. Similarly, the difference between the schools with sanitation facilities in
rural and urban areas is also very wide. In 1993, 3.7% and 41.5% of the schools in rural and
urban areas had reported sanitation facilities in the school. Of the above schools, only 2.2%
in rural and 31.5% in urban areas provide separate facilities to girls.
Ten years later, in 2002, the percentage of schools providing sanitation facilities has
increased to 13.10% and 54.48% in rural and urban areas respectively. However, of the
above only 6.67% of rural and 45.09% of urban area  schools have separate sanitation
facilities for girls. The increase in the sanitation facilities is minimal in general and only 11%
of the primary schools have separate sanitation facilities for girls. The schools which provide
separate sanitation facilities for girls have also not increased significantly.
The upper primary schools report a better picture in the provision of sanitation facilities than
primary levels. There is an increase to 48.2% from  33% in 1993. Even in 1993, 17.6% 93
schools in rural areas and 76.5% schools in urban areas had sanitation facilities. Separate
sanitation facilities for girls are available in 12% rural schools and 65% of urban schools. By
2002, the number of schools providing this particular facility has increased to 41% and 80%
in rural and urban areas respectively. Though, it presents a better picture than primary
schools, the gap between rural - urban and separate facilities for girls has not shown much
improvement. In general 37.6% of the Upper primary  schools in the state are having
separate sanitation facilities for girls by 2002.
The secondary schools in the state reported to have a healthier picture than other schools.
Though by 2002, the number of schools in rural and urban areas has almost doubled, the
increase in sanitation facilities has increased only marginally from 65.2% in 1993 to 69.6%.
Similar is the case of separate facilities for girls (57.7% to 59.5%). In 1993, 55% of schools
in rural areas and 89% schools in urban areas have sanitation facilities. Of the above, 44.5%
schools in rural areas and 88.5% in urban areas have separate facilities for girls.
In 2002, it is reported that 59.5% and 90% secondary schools in rural and urban areas have
sanitation facilities. 46.3% and 86.5% of the above schools in rural and urban areas provides
separate facilities for girls. However, it could be interpreted that very few new schools added
over the decade (1993-2002) provides separate sanitation facilities for girls as the
percentage figure has decreased by two points (from 88.5% to 86.5%). This indicates that
about 60% of secondary schools have sanitation facilities by 2002 which is an essential
facility required for the girls at this stage of education.
Availability of Sanitation Facilities in different Types of Schools -1993 & 2002
Schools Having
Facility for
Schools Having Separate
Facility for Girls
Type of
Total No.
Schools  Urinal
% of
Schools with
No. of
With Girls
% of Girls
with Facility
1993  49141 3609  7.3  48749 2429  5.0
2002  61128 10402  17.02  60817 6824  11.22
Upper  1993  6381 2100  32.9  6305 1602  25.4
schools  2002  15096 7272  48.2  15061 5663  37.6
1993  6959 4540  65.2  6519 3759  57.7
2002  12365 8604  69.6  11911 7089  59.5
Report of VI AIES, 1993 and Data Tables of VII AIES, 2002 94
It is a common practice in the rural areas that once a girl attains puberty she is forbidden to
go outside the house. As already seen in the earlier chapters the marriage age of girls in
rural Andhra Pradesh is 15 years and the age at which first birth is given is 17.9 years. This
social issue can be addressed only if the parents are ensured with minimum facilities and
safety of their daughters in the school.
If we read the drop out rates and availability of sanitation facilities together, it is quite clear
that the drop out rates are higher particularly for girls in secondary and higher secondary
schools especially in rural areas and among SC & ST population groups. Providing basic
separate sanitation facilities will go a long way in reducing drop out rates among girls.  Under
Indiramma Scheme of the state government, sanitation facilities are now being improved at
all levels.
6.5.2 Drinking Water Facility in Schools
Similar to sanitation facilities one of the equally important issues is availability of drinking
water facility in the school. Over the decade(1993-2002), in general, there is an increase in
the facility for drinking water in schools. In 2002, 58% of the primary schools and 79% of the
upper primary schools in rural areas have drinking water facilities compared to 29% primary
and 55% of upper primary schools in 1993. Similarly, by 2002, 78% of the primary schools
and 93% of the upper primary schools in urban areas have drinking water facilities compared
to 56% primary and 81% of the upper primary schools in 1993.
The secondary schools have fared better than elementary schools in the matter of drinking
water. But the increase in facilities over the decade is lower than compared to the increase
in the elementary level. In 1993, 77% of the rural  schools and 92% of the urban schools
recorded drinking water facility. Compared to the above, in 2002, the secondary schools in
the rural areas have recorded drinking facilities in 83% of the schools while it is 95% in urban
schools.  95
Availability of drinking water facility in different types of schools - 1993 & 2002
Type of school Year
Total No. of
Schools Having
Drinking Facility
% of Schools with
1993  49141 15439  31.42
Primary School
2002  61128 36931  60.42
1993  6381 3917  61.39
Upper Primary
2002  15096 12307  81.52
1993  6959 5720  82.2
Secondary School
2002  12365 10730  86.78
On the whole the above scenario reveals that about 60% of primary schools, 81% of upper
primary schools and 86% of secondary schools are having drinking water facilities in the
6.6 Incentives   & Concessions
One of the major limitations for poor people to send their children to school is to provide
adequate educational support which includes text books, uniforms, school fees, travel cost
6.6.1  Text Books
Government of Andhra Pradesh has the policy of providing free text books to the school
children. All children of classes I to V studying in government and local body schools are
provided with free text books. SC, ST, BC and Physically Handicapped children of classes VI
to X studying in government and local body schools are also provided with free text books.
The benefit is extended to the SC/ST/BC/PH children studying in Classes I to X in the
Private Aided Schools.
SSA has provision for providing free text books to all girls of classes I to VIII provided the
state governments have not extended such benefit to the classes. As part of this scheme,
free text books are given to girls of classes VI- VIII also.
Priced Text Books, which are highly subsidised by the state, are supplied to the children
other than reserved categories studying in Classes VI – X in all the schools (Government/
 Ibid 96
Local Body/Private Aided) and to the Private Unaided Schools/Recognised Schools/Social
Welfare Hostels and also to the general public throughout the year.
6.6.2 Scholarships
The National Scholarship Scheme (1961-62) is implemented with the objective of providing
scholarships for post matric studies to the brilliant but poor students. The Scholarship
Scheme for Talented Children from Rural Areas at the Secondary Stage (1971 -72) is
introduced with the objective to achieve equalisation of educational opportunities and to
provide fillip to the development of talent from rural areas by educating talented rural
children in good schools. These two schemes are merged during the Tenth Five Year Plan
and are implemented through state governments with  financial support from central
government. In Andhra Pradesh, under the scheme nearly 28,000 children are benefited
every year. Currently, scholarship is provided to rural children in Classes IX & X, children in
Classes XI & XII and Graduate courses at the rate of scholarship amount of Rs.250/-,
Rs.300/-, Rs. 500/-, Rs. 750/- respectively.
The state government is also awarding Pratibha scholarships @10 under each examination
for every district to the toppers of VII, X, Intermediate and for the toppers of all state level
entrance tests in various categories viz, Girls(2), SC(one),ST(one), BC(2),.Minorities (one),
PH(1) and OC(2).
6.6.3 Transport Facility for Girls
As a social obligation on part of the Andhra Pradesh State Government, APSRTC, is
extending various types of free/confessional bus passes facility to different categories of
students in general and girls in particular, to travel by its buses operating both in cities /
towns and mofussil areas. Free bus passes are issued by APSRTC to all girls of classes I to
X and boys of classes I-VIII.   It is also implementing free travel facility to all girl students
upto an upper age limit of 18 years, studying Class X and below from August, 2000. This
facility is extended for travel between the residence and school by ordinary services upto a
maximum distance of 20 Kms. in rural areas and 22 Kms. in cities / towns. 97
          ‘Free passes – Ticket to Success for School kids’ – A success story
The APSRTC’s scheme of providing free bus passes to children studying in State government schools has
come as a boon to many. This scheme has not only reduced the number of dropouts and child labourers in rural
areas, but has also led to an increase in the number of children attending school regularly. This facility has
encouraged the poor to send their children to upper primary and high schools outside their village. Girl students
too have benefited from the free bus passes allowing them to continue their education instead of looking after
domestic work or agriculture operations.The ‘punch  passes’ with nominal charges are being issued to boys
above 12. Punch passes enable the poor to send their children outside the village for high school education. In
all, 7,220 free bus passes were issued to boys while 9,122 were given to girls. The bus fare amount would be
between per one student depending on the distance from 5 km to 20 kms. District education officer said the free
bus passes are helping the poor parents to send their children to the schools at nearby towns.
6.7 Enhancing Quality – Performance of Students
6.7.1 Children Language Improvement Programme (CLIP)
The state has started a very innovative programme in the name of CLIP. Based on their
knowledge of Telugu (ability to read and write) and basic mathematical skills (add, subtract,
multiply and divide) the students are graded as A,B,C or D. On the basis of performance of
pupils, classes and schools are also graded as A, B, C and D. Special programme and
learning materials have been developed for remedial teaching and special attention is being
given to slow learners.
Monitoring is done on regular basis by MEOs and MRPs and progress is very closely
followed. All the class rooms display grade and record of every student to track progress.
Performance of the districts is monitored at the state level on regular basis.
6.7.2 Teaching and Learning
The State is focusing on quality aspects of teaching, learning and school environment. The
teacher grant (sanctioned under SSA) is being effectively utilised for the preparation of
teaching- learning material keeping in view the needs of children including the disabled.
As part of the SSA programme, the State has launched a rigorous training programme for all
primary, upper primary teachers and Head Teachers to make teaching-learning more
effective and joyful, giving emphasis on classroom  transaction, evaluation process and
importance of remedial teaching.
News item in Deccan Chronicle, dated 27-03-2006 Utnoor (Adilabad), March 26: 98
Issues in Perspective 99
The issues and the concerns which emanate from the  overall scenario presented in the
strategy paper for Girl Child Education are mentioned hereunder:
7.1 Demographic
 Declining girl child sex ratio
 Low Female literacy rates particularly among rural female, S.C. female    and S.T.
 Parental apathy towards girls’ education.
 Dowry system, a social evil forcing parents for the early marriage of school age girls
in rural areas and socially and economically down trodden communities.
7.2 Access
 Parental fear of insecurity for out-station schooling of girls.
 Lack of suitable access for schooling of rural girls at secondary level of education.
 Lack of proper access for schooling of S.T. girls at Upper Primary and Secondary
 Lack of proper access for schooling of out of school girls in work situations.
7.3 Enrolment and Retention
 Low Enrolment Ratios of girls in general and S.C. and S.T. girls in particular at Upper
primary and Secondary levels.
 High dropout rates among ST girls at Primary level.
 High Dropout rate among girls at Upper primary level.
 Very High dropout rate among S.C. and S.T girls at Upper primary level.
7.4 Child Labour
 Lack of adequate machinery for the effective implementation of prevention of child
labour Act and their schooling.
 The subject of child labour is transferred from Labour Department to the School
Education Department. Officers of the Education department are designated as
enforcement officers however their capacity building towards this new role is not
taken care of.
 Inadequate follow up of mainstreaming of the children attending RBCs and NRBCs.
 Lack of needed attention in the effective organisation of alternative schooling system
for mainstreaming of out of school children.
7.5 Quality
 Increase in cadre strength of teachers due to provincialisation of services of teachers
and increased administrative work load of the District Education Officers and Mandal
Education Officers leaving little scope for academic supervision of schools and
monitoring of school programmes.
 Massive educational program being handled by junior level officers who lack
adequate managerial capabilities.
7. Issues in Perspective100
 MEO is the nodal officer responsible for monitoring and implementation of various
schemes and programs along with regular academic responsibilities. Precedence
over the former is leading to low quality of teaching.
 No direct recruitment in the cadre of Mandal Education Officer.
 Low percentage share of female teachers in rural areas at primary, upper primary
and secondary stages of education.
 Lack of female teachers’ in-position in about 51% of Primary schools 25% of Upper
primary schools and 16% of secondary schools.
 Lack of at least 2 classrooms still (2002) in about 40% of primary schools which
include 8% of schools with no classrooms.
 Lack of adequate sanitary facilities for girls at Upper primary and secondary levels
 Lack of adequate teacher motivation to provide opportunities for girls in all the
programmes related to UEE where more physical strain is not involved
 Lack of proper learning environment in teaching-learning situations due to
overcrowded classrooms, lack of proper school buildings etc.
 Lack of adequate infrastructural facilities like teaching aids, furniture, equipment,
games and sports material etc.
 Lack of adequate concern for children with special education needs.
 Lack of special attention to the enrolment, retention and learning achievements of
children of focused groups like children of S.C., S.T., religious and linguistic
minorities, street children etc.
 Inadequate involvement of the community in school programmes like enrolment,
attendance, retention and pupil achievement.   101
Strategies for Girl Child Education 102
The strategies that address the issues concerning the education of the girls in the State are
suggested below:
8.1 Demographic
 Building up public awareness on the threats of declining girl child sex ratio and its
impact on the social life.
 Awareness campaigns on educating girls atleast upto class X and the fallout would
be increase in the age of marriage and resultant decrease in maternal mortality rate
which is a Millennium Development Goal.
 Encouraging competitions among populations of different habitations in achieving
total literacy through monetary and other resource incentives.
 Giving boost to the total literacy programs in all  areas of the state by involving the
entire academic faculty from primary to university level atleast for a period of 2 years
in a concerted manner.
8.2 Access
 Providing secondary school facility in each gram Panchayat having high SC
population, within a radius of 3 km (in relaxation  of the present norm of 5 Km) to
enable the enrolment and retention of rural and SC girls in a phased manner.
 Provision of atleast Upper primary facility closer  to remote ST habitations through
upgradation of GVVKs / Primary schools / Alternative schools for the enrolment and
retention of ST girls.
 Providing free bus service to all elementary school children and girls up to higher
secondary by improving the bus connectivity and also the frequency.  
 Building up public awareness on the need and importance of girls education through
community mobilisation, awareness campaigns, media etc.
 Common school system and neighbourhood schools to be introduced.
8.3 Enrolment and retention
 Community mobilisation through awareness campaigns, enrolment drives and gram
sabhas for the enrolment of the girls particularly  at Upper primary and secondary
 Parent Teacher Associations and School Committees to ensure that all girls in the
village attend schools by enlisting the help of Self Help Groups and Mahila Mandals.
 Enrolment drive in June to mobilise enrolment of girls. The program to be repeated
every year before reopening of schools.
 Special awards to schools/ School Committees which  achieve total enrolment and
total retention of girls in the village.
 Preference to habitation/ villages which have achieved 100% enrolment and retention
of girls in Schools in sanction of public facilities like post offices/ e-Seva centres/
primary health centre/ cooperative bank etc.
 The current policy of the State is bifurcation of Primary sections from Secondary
schools as when they are upgraded in to secondary schools. Clubbing of Primary
and Secondary schools which are functioning in the  same premises to ensure total
retention of girls.
8. Strategies for Girl Child Education103
8.4 Child Labour
 Capacity building for the officers of the education department who are designated as
enforcement officers
 All incentives provided for girls by different departments like education social welfare,
tribal welfare, women and child welfare, projects like SSA, Velugu, NCLP etc to be
disbursed to the beneficiaries in the gram sabhas.
 Every Primary school to have a pre- primary section in villages where Anganwadi
centres are not available, which will relieve the girl child of the sibling burden.
8.5 Quality
o Restructuring of the district administration and upgradation of the post of District
Educational Officer into Joint Director cadre who would be assisted by two District
Educational Officers one in charge of Primary education (including SSA, Mid day
meal programme) and the other for Secondary education.
o Direct recruitment in the cadre of Mandal Education Officer
o Capacity building courses to be offered to all officers involved in massive educational
programs to ensure efficiency and optimum utilisation of resources.
o Sensitizing functionaries on girl child education.
o To ensure atleast one female teacher in every Primary, Upper Primary and
Secondary School.
o Sensitizing teachers on gender issues and steps to be taken by the teachers
encouraging girls’ student participation in the classroom activities, co-curricular
activities to ensure equity in participation and attainment.
o Ensuring the availability of all subject teachers all through out the year.
o Norms of accountability for teachers to be formulated and implemented with
incentives for good performance and disincentives for non-performance as laid down
in NPE, 1986 and POA 1992.
o Ensuring women teachers in all schools by Rationalisation and by linking up
promotions with placements for all teachers. Promotions once declined cannot be
provided again (necessary amendments to the existing rules).
o Introducing the clause of fixed tenure of 2 to 3 years for all newly recruited teachers
in areas of low female literacy
o Learning guarantee to be provided by the school at large to the children, parents and
o Infrastructural facilities to be enhanced for schools with high Girls enrolment.
Provision of adequate classrooms and sanitation facilities in all secondary schools to
facilitate retention of girls.
o Provision of sanitation facilities in all Primary, Upper Primary and Secondary schools
by convergence of various departmental initiatives like SSA, Indiramma, PMGY etc.
A need based approach to be followed.
o Periodic review of the existing facilities in the  residential schools and annual
replenishment of the facilities 104
• Towards better learning leading to empowerment of girls
o Teachers to be made responsible to pay special attention for better learning of
children particularly girls.
o Tutorial classes for slow learners including girls of Classes VII and X in Mathematics
and Science.
o School level physical education activities are to  be organised and separate events
are to be organise for girls.
o Launching of confidence developing measures through various monetary and
material incentives for the continuation of girls education atleast till secondary level.
o Cash incentives to SC/ST girls with more than 80% aggregate in SSC
• Social Audit
o The school charter to be displayed by all schools at a prominent place in the school.
o Periodic evaluation of the performance of the school by the community.
o Participatory appraisal of the performance of all  the schools is to be taken up at
mandal level involving headmasters, members of School Committees Gram
Panchayats and Self Help Groups (SHGs). Mechanisms of grading of schools based
on the enrolment and retention of children, performance of students, conducive
school environment for girl child etc. 105
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